Partisanship and the party system

@article{Converse1992PartisanshipAT,
  title={Partisanship and the party system},
  author={Philip E. Converse and Roy Gifford Pierce},
  journal={Political Behavior},
  year={1992},
  volume={14},
  pages={239-259}
}
The defining properties of party identification long established for the United States fail with some frequency to be replicated in electoral systems abroad. A number of plausible suggestions have been made to account for this system-level variability: Most of these have some face merit, but none taken alone is adequate to provide a full cross-system explanation. Variation in party system size or fractionalization has recently been discussed as another source of differential dynamics of party… 

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