Particles associated with Australia Antigen in the Sera of Patients with Leukaemia, Down's Syndrome and Hepatitis

@article{Bayer1968ParticlesAW,
  title={Particles associated with Australia Antigen in the Sera of Patients with Leukaemia, Down's Syndrome and Hepatitis},
  author={Manfred E. Bayer and Baruch S. Blumberg and Barbara G. Werner},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1968},
  volume={218},
  pages={1057-1059}
}
AUSTRALIA antigen was first identified using an antiserum produced in a transfused patient1,2. The antiserum gave a clear precipitin line in a double diffusion experiment when placed adjacent to the serum from an Australian aborigine. Pending further identification of the antigen, the geographic name “Australian antigen” was given to the reacting material found in the aborigine's serum. Specific antisera against this antigen can be produced by immunizing rabbits with serum containing Australia… 
Additional Specificities of Australia Antigen and the Possible Identification of Hepatitis Carriers
TLDR
Australia antigen, Au(1), is found transiently in the sera of many patients with acute viral hepatitis3–6 and is found in patients with some forms of leukaemia2 and Down's syndrome (who have chronic anicteric hepatitis)2,3,12,13.
Australia Antigen detected in the Nuclei of Liver Cells of Patients with Viral Hepatitis by the Fluorescent Antibody Technique
TLDR
The appearance of purified fractions when viewed with the electron microscope was the most startling findings in the investigation of Au(1), and both the human and rabbit antisera gave identical precipitin reactions.
An analysis of antibody response to Australia antigen in man.
TLDR
The general characteristics of the immune response to Australia antigen are described in four distinct groups: patients who have received multiple transfusions, random blood donors, patients who are convalescent from viral hepatitis, and recipients of transfusions containing Australia antigen.
Australia antigen and hepatitis.
TLDR
It became clear that Australia antigen is closely associated with, or may itself be, a causal agent of viral hepatitis, and it is estimated that tens of millions of asymptomatic people carry the antigen chronically.
Subspecificities of the Australia Antigen Complex
TLDR
Repeated indications over the past two years suggest that Au antigen is not a single simple entity, and that anti-Au antisera may contain antibody molecules of different specificities.
AUSTRALIA ANTIGEN (A HEPATITIS-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN)
Australia antigen [Au(1)], a particle associated with viral hepatitis, was isolated from the plasma of a patient with chronic anicteric hepatitis and leukemia who had received radioactive phosphorus.
AUSTRALIA ANTIGEN, HEPATITIS VIRUS AND DOWNS SYNDROME *
TLDR
Findings from studies completed to test the hypothesis that Australia antigen is a virus provide support for the virus hypothesis, but additional evidence will be needed before it can be concluded that it is, in fact, a virus.
The Australia (Hepatitis-associated) Antigen
TLDR
The accidental discovery of the Australia antigen (HAA) in 1963 by Blumberg and his coworkers is a classical example of biomedical serendipity and may well be seen in the future to have been the all-important breakthrough in attempts at culture of the virus as a means of vaccine preparation for future prophylactic usage.
AUSTRALIA ANTIGEN (A HEPATITIS-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN) PURIFICATION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
TLDR
The findings suggest that the bulk of Australia antigen in the blood of this patient is an incomplete virus or virus capsid.
Australia Antigen and Viral Hepatitis: A Brief Review and a Preliminary Australian Report
TLDR
Australia antigen was detected in 5 of 10 patients with post‐transfusion hepatitis, in 3 of 93 patients with acute viral hepatitis unrelated to transfusion, in 2 of 17 patients with chronic hepatitis, In 8 of 32 institutionalized patients with Down's syndrome, and in 1 member on the staff of a dialysis unit when the recipient developed viral hepatitis.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 16 REFERENCES
Family studies of a human serum isoantigen system (Australia antigen).
TLDR
Preliminary biochemical and immunological studies indicate that Australia antigen contains lipid with electrophoretic mobility and other characteristics similar to those of low density lipoprotein, which can be readily distinguished from other lipoproteins by differences in its flotation characteristics, staining properties, and Immunological reactions.
A "NEW" ANTIGEN IN LEUKEMIA SERA.
TLDR
Patients who receive large numbers of transfusions for anemia and other causes may develop precipitins in their blood, which were thought to be antibodies against serum lipoproteins which developed in the patients as a result of the repeated transfusions.
Inherited antigenic differences in human serum beta lipoproteins. A second antiserum.
TLDR
The present paper reports on a second antisersum, the New York antiserum, obtained from a frequently transfused patient with Cooley's anemia, which reacts with a serum j3lipoprotein, Ag(b+), which is antigenically different from the Ag(a+) antigen first described, and its inheritance appears to be controlled by a different gene.
A serum antigen (Australia antigen) in Down's syndrome, leukemia, and hepatitis.
TLDR
This work has reported the presence of an isoantigen of human sera, rare or absent in normal U. S. and northern European populations but relatively common in patients with leukemia, and its role in the development of leukemia is unclear.
Gel Diffusion Studies on the Antigens of Isolated Cellular Components of Paramecium
TLDR
Four antigens extractable from one strain of Paramecium have been studied by gel-diffusion techniques and the antigen correlated with serotype is derived mainly from the cilia and probably from the body wall and having the properties of a protein.
Further studies on a "new" human isoprecipitin system (Australia antigen).
TLDR
Staining and ultracentrifugation suggest that Australia antigen contains small amounts of lipid, but is not identical with typical low or high density lipoprotein.
ISOLATION OF SMOOTH VESICLES AND FREE RIBOSOMES FROM RAT LIVER MICROSOMES
TLDR
By utilizing the differences in density existing between the membranes and the granular elements it has been possible to separate the smooth membranes from the free ribosomes and ferritin and discuss in relation to current views on microsomal structure and chemistry.
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