# Particle-like topologies in light

@article{Sugic2021ParticlelikeTI, title={Particle-like topologies in light}, author={Danica Sugic and Ramon Droop and Eileen Otte and Daniel Ehrmanntraut and Franco Nori and Janne Ruostekoski and Cornelia Denz and Mark R. Dennis}, journal={Nature Communications}, year={2021}, volume={12} }

Three-dimensional (3D) topological states resemble truly localised, particle-like objects in physical space. Among the richest such structures are 3D skyrmions and hopfions, that realise integer topological numbers in their configuration via homotopic mappings from real space to the hypersphere (sphere in 4D space) or the 2D sphere. They have received tremendous attention as exotic textures in particle physics, cosmology, superfluids, and many other systems. Here we experimentally create and…

## 18 Citations

### Topological Transformation and Free-Space Transport of Photonic Hopfions

- Physics
- 2022

Structured light ﬁelds embody strong spatial variations of polarisation, phase and amplitude. Understanding, characterization and exploitation of such ﬁelds can be achieved through their topological…

### Topological near-field evolutions bounded by surface topology and symmetry of scatterers

- Physics, Mathematics
- 2022

We investigate the life trajectories of magnetic polarization singularities (PSs) in the near fields of scatterers that exhibit spatial geometric symmetry and distinct surface topology. It is…

### Topological quasiparticles of light: Optical skyrmions and beyond

- Physics
- 2022

Skyrmions are topologically stable quasiparticles that have been predicted and demonstrated in quantum ﬁelds, solid-state physics, and magnetic materials, but only recently observed in…

### Dynamical double full Bloch beam created with polariton vortices

- Physics
- 2022

Vortices provide elementary quanta of rotation in superfluids, superconductors, and optics. In the latter case, such vortices are relevant to the encoding of arbitrary quantized angular momentum…

### Review: Topology of solitons and singular defects in chiral liquid crystals

- Physics
- 2021

Widely known for their uses in displays and electro-optics, liquid crystals are more than just technological marvels. They vividly reveal the topology and structure of various solitonic and singular…

### Topological near fields generated by topological structures

- Physics
- 2022

The central idea of metamaterials and metaoptics is that, besides their base materials, the geometry of structures offers a broad extra dimension to explore for exotic functionalities. Here, we…

### Geometric phases of light: insights from ﬁbre bundle theory

- Physics
- 2022

Geometric phases are ubiquitous in physics; they act as memories of the transformation of a physical system. In optics, the most prominent examples are the Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the…

### Colloquium : Geometric phases of light: Insights from fiber bundle theory

- Physics, MathematicsReviews of Modern Physics
- 2022

Geometric phases are ubiquitous in physics; they act as memories of the transformation of a physical system. In optics, the most prominent examples are the Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the…

### Topological approach of characterizing optical Skyrmions and Skyrmion lattices

- Physics
- 2022

We deﬁne the Skyrmion number of paraxial optical Skyrmions solely via their polarization singularities and associated winding numbers, using a mathematical derivation that exploits Stokes’s theorem.…

### Towards higher-dimensional structured light

- PhysicsLight, science & applications
- 2022

Structured light refers to the arbitrarily tailoring of optical fields in all their degrees of freedom (DoFs), from spatial to temporal. Although orbital angular momentum (OAM) is perhaps the most…

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 78 REFERENCES

### Geometric phases in 2D and 3D polarized fields: geometrical, dynamical, and topological aspects

- PhysicsReports on progress in physics. Physical Society
- 2019

Close connections are revealed between geometric phases, angular-momentum properties of the field, and topological properties of polarization singularities in 2D and 3D fields, such as C-points and polarization Möbius strips.

### Synthetic electromagnetic knot in a three-dimensional skyrmion

- PhysicsScience Advances
- 2018

The results reveal the versatile capabilities of synthetic electromagnetism and provide the first experimental images of topological three-dimensional skyrmions in a quantum system.

### Isolated optical vortex knots

- Physics
- 2010

Guided by a general framework for wavefront engineering, experiments demonstrate that in a light field, lines of zero intensity can be shaped into knotted and linked loops of arbitrary topology.…

### Stable knot-like structures in classical field theory

- Physicsnature
- 1997

In 1867, Lord Kelvin proposed that atoms—then considered to be elementary particles—could be described as knotted vortex tubes in either1. For almost two decades, this idea motivated an extensive…

### Ultrafast vector imaging of plasmonic skyrmion dynamics with deep subwavelength resolution

- PhysicsScience
- 2020

A new technique, time-resolved vector microscopy, is introduced that enables us to compose entire movies on a subfemtosecond time scale and a 10-nm spatial scale of the electric field vectors of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs).

### Optical skyrmion lattice in evanescent electromagnetic fields

- PhysicsScience
- 2018

It is shown that optical skyrmion lattices can be generated using evanescent electromagnetic fields and demonstrated using surface plasmon polaritons, imaged by phase-resolved near-field optical microscopy and shown how the optical sk Kyrmions lattice exhibits robustness to imperfections while the topological domain walls in the lattice can be continuously tuned.

### Diversity of knot solitons in liquid crystals manifested by linking of preimages in torons and hopfions

- Physics
- 2017

Topological solitons are knots in continuous physical fields classified by non-zero Hopf index values. Despite arising in theories that span many branches of physics, from elementary particles to…

### Topological Singularities in Wave Fields

- Physics
- 2001

This thesis is a study of the natural geometric structures, arising through interference, in fields of complex waves (scalars, vectors or tensors), where certain parameters describing the wave are…

### Reconstructing the topology of optical polarization knots

- PhysicsNature Physics
- 2018

Knots are topological structures describing how a looped thread can be arranged in space. Although most familiar as knotted material filaments, it is also possible to create knots in singular…