Particle-like topologies in light

@article{Sugic2021ParticlelikeTI,
  title={Particle-like topologies in light},
  author={Danica Sugic and Ramon Droop and Eileen Otte and Daniel Ehrmanntraut and Franco Nori and Janne Ruostekoski and Cornelia Denz and Mark R. Dennis},
  journal={Nature Communications},
  year={2021},
  volume={12}
}
Three-dimensional (3D) topological states resemble truly localised, particle-like objects in physical space. Among the richest such structures are 3D skyrmions and hopfions, that realise integer topological numbers in their configuration via homotopic mappings from real space to the hypersphere (sphere in 4D space) or the 2D sphere. They have received tremendous attention as exotic textures in particle physics, cosmology, superfluids, and many other systems. Here we experimentally create and… 

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