Particle creation in a tunneling universe. I

  title={Particle creation in a tunneling universe. I},
  author={J. Hong and Alexander Vilenkin and Sergei Winitzki},
  journal={Physical Review D},
An expanding closed universe filled with radiation can either recollapse or tunnel to the regime of unbounded expansion, if the cosmological constant is nonzero. We re-examine the question of particle creation during tunneling, with the purpose of resolving a long-standing controversy. Using a perturbative superspace model with a conformally coupled massless scalar field, which is known to give no particle production, we explicitly show that the breakdown of the semiclassical approximation and… 

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