Particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) studies of ice nuclei and other low number density particles

@inproceedings{Cziczo2006ParticleAB,
  title={Particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) studies of ice nuclei and other low number density particles},
  author={Daniel James Cziczo and David Scott Thomson and Tracy Lea Thompson and Paul J Demott and David M. K. Murphy},
  year={2006}
}
Abstract It has been shown that particles which effectively initiate freezing, known as ice nuclei (IN), are normally found at concentrations less than 10 l −1 in the background atmosphere. The low number density of these particles has presented significant analytical challenges, and determination of the size and composition, and thus the origin, of these particles has historically relied upon electron microscopy (EM). Single particle mass spectrometers can provide better time resolution and… CONTINUE READING

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