Participation of primary motor cortex area 4a in complex sensory processing: 3.0-T fMRI study

@article{Terumitsu2009ParticipationOP,
  title={Participation of primary motor cortex area 4a in complex sensory processing: 3.0-T fMRI study},
  author={Makoto Terumitsu and Kotaro Ikeda and Ingrid L. Kwee and Tsutomu Nakada},
  journal={NeuroReport},
  year={2009},
  volume={20},
  pages={679-683}
}
The precise movement of human fingers requires continuous and reciprocal interaction between motor and sensory systems. Similar to other primates, there is double representation of the digits and wrists within the human primary motor cortex (M1), which are generally referred to as area 4 anterior (M1-4a) and area 4 posterior (M1-4p). In this high-field (3.0 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we hypothesized that M1-4p is more important for initiation of motion, whereas M1-4a… 
Optimization of Proprioceptive Stimulation Frequency and Movement Range for fMRI
TLDR
The results are in-line with previous fMRI and PET studies using tactile or median nerve stimulation at different stimulation frequencies, and recommend that movements at 3–6 Hz with a movement range of 5 mm or higher to be used in future studies of proprioception.
Direction of Movement Is Encoded in the Human Primary Motor Cortex
TLDR
The results of spatially segregated direction-related activations in M1 are in accordance with findings of recent fMRI studies on neural encoding of direction in human M1, providing further evidence for a direct link between direction as an organizational principle in sensorimotor transformation and movement execution coded by effector representations in M2.
Tactile-dependant corticomotor facilitation is influenced by discrimination performance in seniors
TLDR
The results highlight the importance of adjusting task demands and controlling for attention when attempting to elicit task-specific motor facilitation in older persons engaged in fine manual actions.
Presence and Absence of Muscle Contraction Elicited by Peripheral Nerve Electrical Stimulation Differentially Modulate Primary Motor Cortex Excitability
TLDR
Results suggest that muscle contraction and concomitant muscle/joint afferent inputs specifically enhance M1 excitability.
The effect of movement rate and complexity on functional magnetic resonance signal change during pedaling.
TLDR
It is concluded that M1, S 1, SMA, and Cb have a role in modifying continuous, bilateral, multijoint lower extremity movements and this brain activity may be driven by sensory signals from the moving limbs.
Neuromagnetic activation following active and passive finger movements
TLDR
The results suggest that the magnetic waveforms at middle latency after PM are different from those after active movement and that these waveforms are generated by the activities of several cortical areas, that is, area 4 and SMA, PPC, and S2.
Expansion of sensorimotor cortical activation for unilateral hand motion during contralateral hand deafferentation
TLDR
It is demonstrated that acute deafferentation of unilateral forearm causes rapid and reversible changes in the neural substrates for contralateral finger motion, mediated possibly by attenuation of transcallosal interhemispheric inhibition.
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 16 REFERENCES
Imagery of voluntary movement of fingers, toes, and tongue activates corresponding body-part-specific motor representations.
TLDR
These results demonstrate that imagery of action engages the somatotopically organized sections of the primary motor cortex in a systematic manner as well as activating some body-part-specific representations in the nonprimary motor areas.
Segregation of somatosensory activation in the human rolandic cortex using fMRI.
TLDR
Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence is provided for the functional delineation of somatosensory representations in the human central sulcus region and strong evidence for the existence of a distinct representation within area 3a in humans is provided.
Two different areas within the primary motor cortex of man
TLDR
It is shown that area 4 in man can be subdivided into areas '4 anterior' and '4 posterior' (4p) on the basis of both quantitative cytoarchitecture and quantitative distributions of transmitter-binding sites and by positron emission tomography that two representations of the fingers exist.
Dominance of the right hemisphere and role of area 2 in human kinesthesia.
TLDR
The results suggest that human kinesthesia is associated with a network of active brain areas that consists of motor areas, cerebellum, and the right fronto-parietal areas including high-order somatosensory areas and provides evidence for a right hemisphere dominance for perception of limb movement.
Cortical representation of self‐paced finger movement
TLDR
It is concluded that repetitive, self-paced index-finger flexions can activate SMA, PM and CMA, and that this movement activates SMA more strongly than PM.
Architectionis, somatotopic organization, and ipsilateral cortical connections of the primary motor area (M1) of owl monkeys
TLDR
The results indicate that M1 interacts directly with at least three non‐primary motor areas and at least six somatosensory areas, and the extent and somatotopic organization of M1 was determined by making detailed microstimulation movement maps and relating the results to cortical architectonics.
Neural activity in human primary motor cortex areas 4a and 4p is modulated differentially by attention to action.
TLDR
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in normal volunteers and probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps, it is observed that neural activity in subarea 4p (posterior) within the primary motor cortex was modulated by attention to action, while neuralActivity in sub area 4a (anterior) was not.
...
1
2
...