# Entropy in an Expanding Universe

@article{Frautschi1982EntropyIA, title={Entropy in an Expanding Universe}, author={Steven C. Frautschi}, journal={Science}, year={1982}, volume={217}, pages={593 - 599} }

The question of how the observed evolution of organized structures from initial chaos in the expanding universe can be reconciled with the laws of statistical mechanics is studied, with emphasis on effects of the expansion and gravity. Some major sources of entropy increase are listed. An expanding "causal" region is defined in which the entropy, though increasing, tends to fall further and further behind its maximum possible value, thus allowing for the development of order. The related… Expand

#### Topics from this paper

#### Paper Mentions

#### 166 Citations

Life, gravity and the second law of thermodynamics

- Physics
- 2008

We review the cosmic evolution of entropy and the gravitational origin of the free energy required by life. All dissipative structures in the universe including all forms of life, owe their existence… Expand

Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: Life, The Universe, and Nothing: Life and Death in an Ever-Expanding Universe

- Philosophy, Physics
- 2000

Current evidence suggests that the cosmological constant is not zero, or that we live in an open universe. We examine the implications for the future under these assumptions, and find that they are… Expand

Structure formation and many-body problem with a special-purpose computer

- Physics
- 1993

Abstract In the universe there are a diversity of structures of large and small scales. On the other hand, the universe began with a thermal equilibrium state as evidenced by the black body spectrum… Expand

Gravitational Entropy and Inflation

- Physics, Computer Science
- Entropy
- 2013

A flat Friedmann universe model is presented, where the dust is replaced with an ideal gas and it is shown that the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to the fifth power of the scale factor and that the entropy in a comoving volume does not change during the expansion. Expand

Entropy and information in evolving biological systems

- Biology
- 1989

The unified theory of evolution attempts to find a common theme linking production rules inherent in biological systems, explaining the origin of biological order as a manifestation of the flow of energy and the flowof information on various spatial and temporal scales, with the recognition that natural selection is an evolutionarily relevant process. Expand

Solutions to the Cosmic Initial Entropy Problem without Equilibrium Initial Conditions

- Physics, Computer Science
- Entropy
- 2017

It is argued that the evenly distributed matter of the early universe is equivalent to low gravitational entropy, and the anthropic principle and the fluctuation theorem suggest this low entropy region should be as small as possible and have as large an entropy as possible, consistent with the authors' existence. Expand

Entropy and Eschatology: a Comment on Kutrovátz's Paper Heat Death in Ancient and Modern Thermodynamics

- Philosophy, Computer Science
- Open Syst. Inf. Dyn.
- 2002

It is shown that there exists another way of answering the heat death puzzle, already present in the ancient philosophical tradition, and the nascent discipline of physical eschatology holds promise of Answer the basic explanatory task concerning the future evolution of the universe without appealing to metaphysics. Expand

6 Cosmological and Biological Reproducibility: Limits on the Maximum Entropy Production Principle

- Physics
- 2003

The Maximum Entropy Production Principle (MEPP) seems to be restricted to reproducible dissipative structures. To apply it to cosmology and biology, reproducibility needs to be quantified. If we… Expand

The Natural Philosophy of Entropy

- 2002

This paper attempts to answer two questions: (1) why is there anything at all; and (2) why are there so many kinds of things? The first is explained by the fact that the universal expansion following… Expand

Inflation and time asymmetry in the Universe

- Physics
- Nature
- 1983

The recently proposed inflationary Universe scenario1–4 explains several of the mysteries of modern cosmology. I argue here that it also provides a natural explanation for the origin of time… Expand

#### References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 26 REFERENCES

Effects of proton decay on the cosmological future

- Physics
- 1982

We calculate, for an open universe, the densities of radiation and matter at large times if the proton has a lifetime tau/sub p/ of about 10/sup 30/ years; we consider the contributions to these… Expand

Acceleration radiation and the generalized second law of thermodynamics

- Physics
- 1982

It is shown that the Bekenstein limit, S/E< or =2..pi..R, for the entropy-to-energy ratio of matter confined by a box of size R is not needed for the validity of the generalized second law of… Expand

Black hole explosions?

- Physics
- Nature
- 1974

QUANTUM gravitational effects are usually ignored in calculations of the formation and evolution of black holes. The justification for this is that the radius of curvature of space-time outside the… Expand

Relativity, Thermodynamics and Cosmology

- Physics
- Nature
- 1935

THE general theory of relativity has now been before the scientific world for some twenty years, and the special theory considerably longer. Fifteen or sixteen years ago, the theory may be said to… Expand

Time without end: Physics and biology in an open universe

- Biology, Physics
- 1979

The general conclusion of the analysis is that an open universe need not evolve into a state of permanent quiescence and life and communication can continue for ever, utilizing a finite store of energy, if the assumed scaling laws are valid. Expand

Black Holes and Thermodynamics

- Physics
- 1976

A black hole of given mass, angular momentum, and charge can have a large number of different unobservable internal configurations which reflect the possible different initial configurations of the… Expand

Universal upper bound on the entropy-to-energy ratio for bounded systems

- Physics
- 1981

We present evidence for the existence of a universal upper bound of magnitude $\frac{2\ensuremath{\pi}R}{\ensuremath{\hbar}c}$ to the entropy-to-energy ratio $\frac{S}{E}$ of an arbitrary system of… Expand

Black holes and entropy

- Physics
- 1973

There are a number of similarities between black-hole physics and thermodynamics. Most striking is the similarity in the behaviors of black-hole area and of entropy: Both quantities tend to increase… Expand

Eternity is unstable

- Physics
- Nature
- 1978

We show that if the Universe expands forever, it will become increasingly irregular in the far future. In particular, we demonstrate that the Hawking black hole evaporation process causes a vortical… Expand

The dynamical evolution of globular clusters

- Physics
- 1978

The fundamental physical ideas underlying the dynamical behavior of globular star clusters are reviewed. The results of detailed numerical experiments involving large N-body stellar systems are… Expand