Part 3: Developing Methods of In Vivo MRI Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects With Unilateral and Bilateral Straight Leg Raise Tests

@article{Rade2015Part3D,
  title={Part 3: Developing Methods of In Vivo MRI Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects With Unilateral and Bilateral Straight Leg Raise Tests},
  author={Marinko Rade and Michael O. Shacklock and Mervi K{\"o}n{\"o}nen and Jarkko Marttila and Ritva Vanninen and Markku Kankaanp{\"a}{\"a} and Olavi Airaksinen},
  journal={Spine},
  year={2015},
  volume={40},
  pages={935–941}
}
Study Design. Controlled radiological study. Objective. Verify (1) whether conus medullaris displacement varies with the range of hip flexion and (2) whether the acquired data support the “principle of linear dependence.” Summary of Background Data. We have previously quantified normal displacement of the conus with unilateral and bilateral straight leg raise (SLR) and have described the “principle of linear dependence.” However, we have since effected methodological advances that have produced… 
In Vivo MRI Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects with Unilateral and Sham Straight Leg Raise Tests
Background Normal displacement of the conus medullaris with unilateral and bilateral SLR has been quantified and the "principle of linear dependence" has been described. Purpose Explore whether
Normal multiplanar movement of the spinal cord during unilateral and bilateral straight leg raise: Quantification, mechanisms, and overview
TLDR
It is concluded that lateral and antero‐posterior displacement of conus medullaris into the vertebral canal occurs consistently with unilateral and bilateral SLRs following directions predicted by tension vectors.
Reduced Spinal Cord Movement With the Straight Leg Raise Test in Patients With Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation
TLDR
In patients with LIDH, the neural displacement on the symptomatic side is significantly reduced by the compressing IVD herniation, the first data in intact human subjects to support the limitation of neural movements in the vertebral canal with LidH.
Normalization of Spinal Cord Displacement with the Straight leg Raise and Resolution of Sciatica in Patients with Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation: A 1.5-Year Follow-up Study.
TLDR
These are the first non-invasive data to objectively support the association between increase in magnitude of neural adaptive movement and resolution of both radicular and LBP symptoms in in-vivo and structurally intact human subjects.
Dynamic Lumbosacral Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Dog with Tethered Cord Syndrome with a Tight Filum Terminale
TLDR
The results of this report suggest further exploration of dynamic MRI to demonstrate decreased craniocaudal displacement of the conus medullaris in dogs with tethered cord syndrome with a tight filum terminale.
A Prospective Analysis of the Supine and Sitting Straight-Leg Raise Test and Its Performance in Litigation Patients
TLDR
This study demonstrated that the SLR test is equivalent in the sitting and supine position, therefore, patients with a positive test should have similar angles in both positions, decreasing the chance of falsifying the examination.
Raise Test and Its Performance in Litigation Patients A Prospective Analysis of the Supine and Sitting Straight-Leg
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the SLR test is equivalent in the sitting and supine position, therefore, patients with a positive test should have similar angles in both positions, decreasing the chance of falsifying the examination.
Slump Test: Effect of Contralateral Knee Extension on Response Sensations in Asymptomatic Subjects and Cadaver Study
TLDR
In asymptomatic subjects, normal thigh stretch sensations with the ST reduced consistently with the contralateral ST, showing that this is normal and may now be compared with patients with sciatica.
Neuromuscular Strain Increases Symptom Intensity in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
TLDR
It is concluded that a longitudinal strain applied to the nerves and soft tissues of the lower limb is capable of increasing symptom intensity in individuals with CFS for up to 24 hours.
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References

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2014 Young Investigator Award Winner: In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects Part 2 Comparison Between Unilateral and Bilateral Straight Leg Raise Tests
TLDR
This first data on noninvasive, in vivo, normative measurement of spinal cord displacement with bilateral SLR test offers baseline measurements on which further studies in diagnosis and treatment of lumbar disc protrusion and radiculopathy may be developed.
2014 Young Investigator Award Winner: In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects Part 1 Straight Leg Raise Test
TLDR
The data show that the spinal cord in the thoracolumbar region slides distally in response to the clinically applied SLR test, and the high correlation values in this study show that these movements are consistent and reproducible.
2006 Young Investigator Award Winner: Lumbosacral Nerve Root Displacement and Strain: Part 2. A Comparison of 2 Straight Leg Raise Conditions in Unembalmed Cadavers
TLDR
Comparisons to compare the displacement and strain of the lumbosacral nerve roots during different conditions of straight leg raise (SLR) with intact foraminal ligaments suggest that SLR DF may produce more strain than the SLR NPP condition, and prepositions of theSLR test alter the displacement.
2006 Young Investigator Award Winner: Lumbosacral Nerve Root Displacement and Strain: Part 1. A Novel Measurement Technique During Straight Leg Raise in Unembalmed Cadavers
TLDR
The lumbosacral nerve roots (L4, L5, S1) moved less and underwent less strain during SLR testing than previously reported and may require hip motion greater than 60° to produce substantive displacement in the lateral recess.
Straight leg raising. Anatomical effects on the spinal nerve root without and with fusion.
TLDR
Spinal nerve root motion was studied while a SLR maneuver was performed and it was found that the nerve roots moved laterally toward the pedicle and thus would move into a posterolaterally herniated disc.
Biomechanical Considerations in the Straight‐Leg-Raising Test Cadaveric and Clinical Studies of the Effects of Medial Hip Rotation
TLDR
It is concluded that uncontrolled hip rotation reduces the value of the SLR test, that medial hip rotation near the limit of painfree SLR is a useful qualifying test for increased root tension, and that the diagnostic value and repeatability of SLR would be improved by adopting a standardized protocol.
Changes in Nerve Root Motion and Intraradicular Blood Flow During an Intraoperative Straight-Leg-Raising Test
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the blood flow in the nerveRoot is reduced when the nerve root is compressed in vivo.
Pathomechanisms of Sciatica in Lumbar Disc Herniation: Effect of Periradicular Adhesive Tissue on Electrophysiological Values by an Intraoperative Straight Leg Raising Test
TLDR
The data suggest that temporary ischemic changes in the nerve root cause transient conduction disturbances in patients with disc herniation and the presence of periradicular fibrosis will compound the nerveRoot pain by fixing the nerve in one position, thereby increasing the susceptibility of the nerve Root to tension or compression.
The Straight Leg Raising Test and the Severity of Symptoms in Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Preoperative and Postoperative Evaluation
TLDR
The straight leg raising test as performed in clinical practice has a strong correlation with various parameters that signify the pain level of the patient and early postoperatively correlated with inferior outcome of the surgical procedure.
The straight leg raising test and the severity of symptoms in lumbar disc herniation. A preoperative evaluation.
TLDR
The straight leg raising test as performed in clinical practice has a strong correlation with various parameters that signify the pain level of the patient and postoperatively correlates with inferior surgical outcome.
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