Parochial altruism in humans

  title={Parochial altruism in humans},
  author={Helen Bernhard and Urs Fischbacher and Ernst Fehr},
Social norms and the associated altruistic behaviours are decisive for the evolution of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order, and they affect family life, politics and economic interactions. However, as altruistic norm compliance and norm enforcement often emerge in the context of inter-group conflicts, they are likely to be shaped by parochialism—a preference for favouring the members of one's ethnic, racial or language group. We have conducted punishment experiments, which… 

Choosy Moral Punishers

It is suggested that context specificity plays an important role in normative behaviour; people seem inclined to enforce social norms only in situations that are familiar, relevant for their social category, and possibly strategically advantageous.

The mentalizing network orchestrates the impact of parochial altruism on social norm enforcement

Connectivity analyses between the two networks suggest that the mentalizing‐network modulates punishment by affecting the activity in the right orbitofrontal gyrus and right lateral prefrontal cortex, notably in the same areas showing enhanced activity and connectivity whenever third‐parties strongly punished defecting outgroup members.

Altruistic Punishment Theory and Inter-Group Violence

This dissertation explores the role of altruistic punishment, the act of punishing outsiders perceived to harm members of one’s group at a personal cost, in explaining individual motivations to

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Parochial Altruism and Political Ideology

Parochial altruism refers to the propensity to direct prosocial behavior toward members of one's own ingroup to a greater extent than toward those outside one's group. Both theory and empirical

Parochial trust and cooperation across 17 societies

It is found that people are motivated to trust and cooperate more with their ingroup, than harm the outgroup, and reputational concerns play a decisive role for promoting trust and cooperation universally across societies.

Social Distance and Parochial Altruism: An Experimental Study

Parochial altruism-individual sacrifice to benefit the in-group and harm an out-group-undermines inter-group cooperation and is implicated in a plethora of politically-significant behaviors. We

Editorial: Parochial Altruism: Pitfalls and Prospects

Ten original studies included in this Research Topic investigate selected assumptions and predictions of parochial altruism theory in detail and find that human decision making in intergroup contexts is more complex than suggested by current theory.

Intuitive Participation in Aggressive Intergroup Conflict: Evidence of Weak Versus Strong Parochial Altruism

Research on so-called parochial altruism, i.e., the motivation to benefit in-group members at personal cost, while not benefitting or even harming out-groupMembers, recently received much attention in psychology and beyond.



Altruistic punishment in humans

It is shown experimentally that the altruistic punishment of defectors is a key motive for the explanation of cooperation, and that future study of the evolution of human cooperation should include a strong focus on explaining altruistic punished.

The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism

  • R. Trivers
  • Psychology
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1971
A model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior. The model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the

Third Party Punishment and Social Norms

We examine the characteristics and relative strength of third-party sanctions in a series of experiments. We hypothesize that egalitarian distribution norms and cooperation norms apply in our

The evolution of altruistic punishment

It is shown that an important asymmetry between altruistic cooperation and altruistic punishment allows altruistic punished to evolve in populations engaged in one-time, anonymous interactions, and this process allows both altruism punishment and altruism cooperation to be maintained even when groups are large.

Norm Enforcement among the Ju / ' hoansi Bushmen A Case of Strong Reciprocity ?

The concept of cooperative communities that enforce norm conformity through reward, as well as shaming, ridicule, and ostracism, has been central to anthropology since the work of Durkheim.

Why people punish defectors. Weak conformist transmission can stabilize costly enforcement of norms in cooperative dilemmas.

In this paper, we present a cultural evolutionary model in which norms for cooperation and punishment are acquired via two cognitive mechanisms: (1) payoff-biased transmission-a tendency to copy the

The nature of human altruism

Current gene-based evolutionary theories cannot explain important patterns of human altruism, pointing towards the importance of both theories of cultural evolution as well as gene–culture co-evolution.

Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring

It is proposed that the emergence of indirect reciprocity was a decisive step for the evolution of human societies and the probability of knowing the ‘image’ of the recipient must exceed the cost-to-benefit ratio of the altruistic act.

Costly Punishment Across Human Societies

Experimental results from 15 diverse populations show that all populations demonstrate some willingness to administer costly punishment as unequal behavior increases, and the magnitude of this punishment varies substantially across populations, and costly punishment positively covaries with altruistic behavior across populations.