Parliamentary Heads of State: Players or Figureheads? The Case of Horst Köhler

  title={Parliamentary Heads of State: Players or Figureheads? The Case of Horst K{\"o}hler},
  author={Gerd Strohmeier and Ruth Wittlinger},
  journal={West European Politics},
  pages={237 - 257}
In non-presidential systems the head of state is either a monarch or a president elected directly by the voters or by an assembly. The political powers of heads of state in non-presidential systems vary from being powerful to being just a symbolic figure of representation and integration. In response to the disastrous experience of the Weimar Republic, in the Federal Republic the choice fell on the latter with the result that the political powers of the President were significantly reduced… Expand
1 Citations
Risk vs Reward Strategies in Indirect Presidential Elections: Political Parties and the Selection of Presidential Electors in Germany, 1949–2017
Parties across parliamentary republics compete fiercely over capturing the presidential office. However, they are often torn between seeing their preferred candidate elected and exploiting theExpand


Schröder’s Dissolution of the Bundestag Approved
Dissolution of the Bundestag by the Federal President on advice of Federal Chancellor — A ‘negative’ motion for a vote of confidence — Precedents of 1972 and 1982 — Dissolution in conformity with theExpand
The English Constitution
'An ancient and ever-altering constitution is like an old man who still wears with attached fondness clothes in the fashion of his youth: what you see of him is the same; what you do not see isExpand
Political Institutions in the Federal Republic of Germany
Introduction 1. Against 'Leviathan' and 'Behemoth': The Anti-Totalitarian Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany 2. Governing a Semi-Sovereign State: Germany's Executive 3. From NegativeExpand
Das politische System der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Anmerkungen des Umsetzungsdienstes: Die Tabellen und Grafiken befinden sich teilweise in gesonderten Dateien. Die Zahlung der Tabellen entspricht dann nicht der Tabellenzahlung der Vorlage. DasExpand
Of The Constitution
Bundespra¨sident Horst Ko¨hler fertigt Gesetz zur Neuregelung des Rechts der Verbraucherinformation nicht aus
  • 2006
Die Glaubwürdigkeit der Freiheit’, Berliner Rede, 24 March, available at,2.653316/Berliner-Rede-2009.htm (accessed
  • 2009
Arbeit, Bildung, Integration
  • Berliner Rede,
  • 2008
Bundespräsident Köhler: Nicht die erste Rüge
  • 2006