Parkinson disease

  title={Parkinson disease},
  author={Werner Poewe and Klaus Seppi and Caroline M. Tanner and Glenda M. Halliday and Patrik Brundin and Jens Volkmann and Anette E Schrag and Anthony E. Lang},
  journal={Nature Reviews Disease Primers},
Parkinson disease is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2–3% of the population ≥65 years of age. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency, and intracellular inclusions containing aggregates of α-synuclein are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease. Multiple other cell types throughout the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system are also involved, probably from early disease onwards. Although clinical… 

Parkinson's disease: A Review about Pathogenesis, Pharmaceutical Treatment and Experimental Models

The primary drug for PD treatment is L-dopa; however, drug-induced dyskinesia and motor complications restricted its use as long term treatment, and dopamine agonists are alternative options for initial treatment of PD and have been reported to retard the onset of motor complications.

Fatty acid chemical mediator provides insights into the pathology and treatment of Parkinson’s disease

  • C. Borlongan
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2018
The advent of disease biomarkers may facilitate early diagnosis and treatment initiation for Parkinson's disease, and despite scientific advances in knowledge of the disease pathology, there is no cure for PD, only relief from its symptoms.

Parkinson disease-associated cognitive impairment

This Primer reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease and describes the effects on patient quality of life and the future outlook for the field.

Translation Imaging in Parkinson’s Disease: Focus on Neuroinflammation

An overview of in vivo clinical and non-clinical imaging research on neuroinflammation as an emerging marker of early Parkinson's disease is proposed and how multimodal-imaging approaches could provide more insights into the role of the inflammatory process and related events in PD development is discussed.

The Convergence of Alpha-Synuclein, Mitochondrial, and Lysosomal Pathways in Vulnerability of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinson’s Disease

It is suggested that targeting multiple pathways, rather than individual processes, will be important for developing disease-modifying therapies, and current translational efforts specifically targeting lysosomal function and oxidative stress via calcium and iron modulation could have therapeutic benefits for the broader population of sporadic PD and related synucleinopathies.

Pilot Study for Correlation of Heart Rate Variability and Dopamine Transporter Brain Imaging in Patients with Parkinsonian Syndrome

The hypothesis that more imbalanced left-sided neuronal loss results in greater AutD is supported through the combination of SPECT and HRV, which shows a significant difference between the high-frequency domains of heart rate variability, asymmetry of the caudate S BR, and putamen-to-caudate SBR.

Parkinson’s disease: etiopathogenesis and treatment

  • J. JankovicE. Tan
  • Biology, Psychology
    Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
  • 2020
The involvement of dopaminergic as well as noradrenergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic and adenosine pathways provide insights into the rich and variable clinical phenomenology associated with PD and the possibility of alternative therapeutic approaches beyond traditional dopamine replacement therapies.



Pathogenic mutations in Parkinson disease

It is suggested that deficits in mitochondrial function, oxidative and nitrosative stress, the accumulation of aberrant or misfolded proteins, and ubiquitin‐proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction may represent the principal molecular pathways that commonly underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease.

Calcium and Parkinson's disease.

Progressive parkinsonism in mice with respiratory-chain-deficient dopamine neurons

It is demonstrated that respiratory chain dysfunction in DA neurons may be of pathophysiological importance in PD and reduced mtDNA expression and respiratory chain deficiency in midbrain DA neurons leads to a parkinsonism phenotype.

The Concept of Prodromal Parkinson’s Disease

A key challenge in PD research is to identify and validate markers for the preclinical and prodromal stages of the illness, and several nonmotor symptoms have been associated with an increased risk to develop PD in otherwise healthy individuals.

Neuroimaging in Parkinson disease: from research setting to clinical practice

  • M. Politis
  • Biology, Psychology
    Nature Reviews Neurology
  • 2014
The lessons learnt from decades of neuroimaging research in PD are discussed, and the promising new approaches with potential applicability to clinical practice are discussed.