Parkinson Disease.

  title={Parkinson Disease.},
  author={Oleh Hornykiewicz},
  journal={Home healthcare now},
  volume={34 6},
Often the first symptom of Parkinson disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These… 


Parkinson's disease
Genetics of Parkinsonism
A review of the genetic hypothesis of PD etiology driven recently by the identification of a number of PD loci, discussing the latest data and evidence available and of particular interest are the recently described mutations in the PINK1 (PARK6) and LRRK2 (Park8) genes.
Genetics of Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism
The identification of responsible mutations in certain genes, particularly α-synuclein, Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1 and LRRK2, has increased understanding of the clinical and pathological changes underlying Parkinson's disease, with implications for patient diagnosis, management and future research.
Genetics of Parkinson's disease
  • H. Morris
  • Biology, Medicine
    Annals of medicine
  • 2005
It is now known that there are two autosomal dominant disease genes, alpha‐synuclein and dardarin, and three genes responsible for autosomal recessive PD, parkin, DJ‐1 and PINK‐1, which have led to a new understanding of the pathogenesis of PD.
Hereditary parkinsonism: Parkinson disease look‐alikes—An algorithm for clinicians to “PARK” genes and beyond
This review focuses on three different scenarios in patients with an overall early age of onset of parkinsonism: atypical features in customers with mutations in one of the “PARK” genes; classical parkinsonistan due to mutations in “other than‐Parks’ genes or yet other genes where parkinsonistism may be a well‐recognized, concomitant, or even an isolated feature.
Biochemical aspects of Parkinson's disease
The view is advanced that endogenous, genetically based(excessive) formation, or accumulation, of toxic DA transporter substrates, such as isoquinoline or β-carboline derivatives, may in fact represent the primary cause of substantia nigra cell degeneration in patients with PD.
Pathogenic mutations in Parkinson disease
It is suggested that deficits in mitochondrial function, oxidative and nitrosative stress, the accumulation of aberrant or misfolded proteins, and ubiquitin‐proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction may represent the principal molecular pathways that commonly underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease.
Genetics of Parkinson disease: paradigm shifts and future prospects
  • M. Farrer
  • Biology, Medicine
    Nature Reviews Genetics
  • 2006
Genetic insights provide the rationale for new strategies for prevention or therapy, and have led to animal models of disease in which these strategies can be tested.
What genetics tells us about the causes and mechanisms of Parkinson's disease.
An impressive set of data in different model systems strongly suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in clinically similar, early-onset autosomal recessive PD forms caused by parkin and PINK1, and possibly DJ-1 gene mutations.