Parity effect does not mean a superconductor free of quasiparticles

  title={Parity effect does not mean a superconductor free of quasiparticles},
  author={Elsa T Mannila and Ville F Maisi and H. Q. Nguyen and Charles M. Marcus and Jukka P. Pekola},
  journal={arXiv: Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics},
We show that a superconducting device can show a clear parity effect in the number of electrons even when there is, on average, a single nonequilibrium quasiparticle present, by monitoring in real time the charge state of a superconducting island connected to normal leads by tunnel junctions. The quasiparticles are created by Cooper pairs breaking on the island at a rate of a few kHz. We demonstrate that the pair breaking is caused by the backaction of the single-electron transistor used as a… 

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