Parenteral nutrition support is the provision of essential nutrients intravenously, bypassing the intestinal tract. It is used in a variety of clinical settings and medical conditions. Parenteral nutrition is a complex technology that requires the input of many professionals, including dietitians. The role of the dietitian in parenteral nutrition support involves direct patient care, consultative services, education, program development, and research. Even though this field of practice is still developing, some common practices can be described. Nutrition assessment determination of macronutrient and micronutrient requirements, and monitoring are vital aspects of the provision of parenteral nutrition support that benefit from the knowledge and experience of a dietitian. The future of parenteral nutrition includes identification of preferred fuels for specific disease states, development of new lipid emulsions, and identification of conditionally essential nutrients.