Parental investment and the evolution of subsocial behaviour in harvestmen (Arachnida Opiliones)

@article{Machado2001ParentalIA,
  title={Parental investment and the evolution of subsocial behaviour in harvestmen (Arachnida Opiliones)},
  author={Glauco B. O. Machado and Rui Raimundo},
  journal={Ethology Ecology \& Evolution},
  year={2001},
  volume={13},
  pages={133 - 150}
}
The diversity of reproductive strategies within the arachnids rivals all other arthropod groups. However, with the possible exception of spiders and scorpions, evolutionary biologists have overlooked these organisms. The order Opiliones is divided in three suborders (Cyphophthalmi, Palpatores and Laniatores) with considerable differences in morphology, habits and behaviour. In this review we focus on the life history, sexual behaviour and ecology of Opiliones, and discuss the possible causes of… 

Maternal care, defensive behavior, and sociality in neotropical Goniosoma harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones)

The parental activities, defensive behavior, and gregariousness of five species of Goniosoma are reported on, and the published biological data for the genus is summarized.

Reproductive behavior of Chavesincola inexpectabilis (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae) with description of a new and independently evolved case of paternal care in harvestmen

Mapping the available data on reproductive biology of the Gonyleptidae on the phylogeny of the family, it is possible to infer that paternal care has evolved at least three times independently: once in the clade ProgonylePToidellinae + Caelopyginae,once in the GONYleptinee, and once inThe Heteropachylinaes, which occupies a basal position within the group.

Five new cases of paternal care in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones): implications for the evolution of male guarding in the Neotropical family Gonyleptidae

Field observations on paternal care in five species of harvestmen belonging to the family Gonyleptidae suggest that males have many mating opportunities and that they guard eggs laid by more than one female, and predicts that paternal care seems to be a sexually selected trait.

MATERNAL CARE IN THE NEOTROPICAL HARVESTMAN BOURGUYIA ALBIORNATA (ARACHNIDA: OPILIONES): OVIPOSITION SITE SELECTION AND EGG PROTECTION

Females of the harvestman Bourguyia albiornata oviposit almost exclusively inside the tube formed by the curled leaves of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis, and intense predation on eggs by generalist predators may be an important pressure promoting parental care in Neotropical harvestmen.

Paternal care in the Neotropical harvestman Cynorta bromeliacia (Opiliones: Cosmetidae).

It is speculated that oviposition sites are close to roosting sites or other such refuges for either the male or both sexes and given the weak sexual dimorphism displayed by the species, it is likely that females may produce multiple clutches in this species.

Gregarious behavior of two species of Neotropical harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones: Gonyleptidae)

Abstract We present the first record and description of the gregarious behavior of the Neotropical harvestmen Serracutisoma proximum (Mello-Leitão 1922) and Serracutisoma spelaeum (Mello-Leitão 1933)

Maternal care and subsocial behaviour in spiders

  • E. YipL. S. Rayor
  • Biology
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 2014
It is argued that spiders offer an opportunity to untangle the ecological causes of parental care, which forms the basis of many other animal societies.

Paternal care in a Neotropical harvestman (Opiliones: Cosmetidae) from Costa Rica

Multiple observations of egg guarding by adult males of an undescribed species of cosmetid harvestman from Volcán Cacao, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica are described.

Maternal care in the Neotropical harvestman Liogonyleptoides tetracanthus (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae)

There are cases of egg hiding, paternal and maternal care within the subfamily Gonyleptinae, and this diversity of forms of parental care is unusual when compared to other gonylePTid subfamilies, and future systematic revisions of the polyphyletic GONYleptinee should include parental care as a potential source of phylogenetic information.

Different environment, different reproductive strategies? Unexpected field observations in the harvestmen Discocyrtus prospicuus (Laniatores: Gonyleptidae).

The results do not match the expected pattern for this species, consisting of males deserting females immediately after copulation, and females laying isolated eggs and abandoning them after oviposition, but it is shown for the first-time pairs D. prospicuus, formed by a female and a male, resting together before and after Oviposition.

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