Parental investment and the evolution of subsocial behaviour in harvestmen (Arachnida Opiliones)

  title={Parental investment and the evolution of subsocial behaviour in harvestmen (Arachnida Opiliones)},
  author={Glauco B. O. Machado and Rui Raimundo},
  journal={Ethology Ecology \& Evolution},
  pages={133 - 150}
The diversity of reproductive strategies within the arachnids rivals all other arthropod groups. However, with the possible exception of spiders and scorpions, evolutionary biologists have overlooked these organisms. The order Opiliones is divided in three suborders (Cyphophthalmi, Palpatores and Laniatores) with considerable differences in morphology, habits and behaviour. In this review we focus on the life history, sexual behaviour and ecology of Opiliones, and discuss the possible causes of… 

Maternal care, defensive behavior, and sociality in neotropical Goniosoma harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones)

The parental activities, defensive behavior, and gregariousness of five species of Goniosoma are reported on, and the published biological data for the genus is summarized.

Reproductive behavior of Chavesincola inexpectabilis (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae) with description of a new and independently evolved case of paternal care in harvestmen

Mapping the available data on reproductive biology of the Gonyleptidae on the phylogeny of the family, it is possible to infer that paternal care has evolved at least three times independently: once in the clade ProgonylePToidellinae + Caelopyginae,once in the GONYleptinee, and once inThe Heteropachylinaes, which occupies a basal position within the group.

Five new cases of paternal care in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones): implications for the evolution of male guarding in the Neotropical family Gonyleptidae

Field observations on paternal care in five species of harvestmen belonging to the family Gonyleptidae suggest that males have many mating opportunities and that they guard eggs laid by more than one female, and predicts that paternal care seems to be a sexually selected trait.


Females of the harvestman Bourguyia albiornata oviposit almost exclusively inside the tube formed by the curled leaves of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis, and intense predation on eggs by generalist predators may be an important pressure promoting parental care in Neotropical harvestmen.

Paternal care in the Neotropical harvestman Cynorta bromeliacia (Opiliones: Cosmetidae).

It is speculated that oviposition sites are close to roosting sites or other such refuges for either the male or both sexes and given the weak sexual dimorphism displayed by the species, it is likely that females may produce multiple clutches in this species.

Gregarious behavior of two species of Neotropical harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones: Gonyleptidae)

Abstract We present the first record and description of the gregarious behavior of the Neotropical harvestmen Serracutisoma proximum (Mello-Leitão 1922) and Serracutisoma spelaeum (Mello-Leitão 1933)

Maternal care and subsocial behaviour in spiders

  • E. YipL. S. Rayor
  • Biology
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 2014
It is argued that spiders offer an opportunity to untangle the ecological causes of parental care, which forms the basis of many other animal societies.

Paternal care in a Neotropical harvestman (Opiliones: Cosmetidae) from Costa Rica

Multiple observations of egg guarding by adult males of an undescribed species of cosmetid harvestman from Volcán Cacao, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica are described.

Maternal care in the Neotropical harvestman Liogonyleptoides tetracanthus (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae)

There are cases of egg hiding, paternal and maternal care within the subfamily Gonyleptinae, and this diversity of forms of parental care is unusual when compared to other gonylePTid subfamilies, and future systematic revisions of the polyphyletic GONYleptinee should include parental care as a potential source of phylogenetic information.

Different environment, different reproductive strategies? Unexpected field observations in the harvestmen Discocyrtus prospicuus (Laniatores: Gonyleptidae).

The results do not match the expected pattern for this species, consisting of males deserting females immediately after copulation, and females laying isolated eggs and abandoning them after oviposition, but it is shown for the first-time pairs D. prospicuus, formed by a female and a male, resting together before and after Oviposition.



The Evolution of Social Behavior in Insects and Arachnids: Evolution of paternal care in the giant water bugs (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae)

This chapter explores the biology, phylogeny and fossil record of the Belostomatidae and related taxa in an attempt to discern the selection forces, the constraints, and the sequence of historical events responsible for the evolution of this unusual behavior and its subsequent diversification.

Ovipositors, Amnions and Eggshell Architecture in the Diversification of Terrestrial Arthropods

It is suggested that insects would been unable to exploit the potential of holometaboly and flight without the capacity to ensure egg survival in the wide range of oviposition substrates provided by terrestrial environments.

Paternal care

Paternal Investment by Terrestrial Arthropods

The indirect sperm transfer strategies common to many terrestrial arthropod species seem to preclude males from contributing materially to their offspring by dissociating parent from progeny, which may explain in part the relative paucity of high levels of paternal investment by terrestrialArthropods.

Reproductive biology of the neotropical harvestman ( Goniosoma longipes ) (Arachnida, Opiliones: Gonyleptidae): mating and oviposition behaviour, brood mortality, and parental care

This field study provides the first experimental demonstration that egg-guarding by females affords protection against egg predation in a harvestman species, and indicates the choice of a suitable oviposition site by the gravid female can reduce fungal attack within the cave habitat of this species.

The evolution of parental behaviour in Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae): an experimental approach

Dung beetle lifestyles are reviewed and the significance of the transient cooperation with the male beetle is discussed, and variations in the basic Copris nesting behaviour are summarized.

Phylogeny of Opiliones (Arachnida): An Assessment of the "Cyphopalpatores" Concept

Analysis of relationships among the major lineages of Opiliones using both genitalic and non-genitalic char- acters reaffirms the observation that a given hypothesis of character evolution can be consistent with several phylogenetic hypotheses and that an empirically robust phylogenetic analysis should include more than one character system.

Daily activity schedule, gregariousness, and defensive behaviour in the Neotropical harvestman Goniosoma longipes (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae)

The activity schedule of G. longipes shows that individuals need to leave the cave periodically to forage, and therefore the population can be considered trogloxene, and data on the food items collection indicate that the harvestman is a generalist predator which also feeds on dead animal matter.

Cost of Benefits of Territoriality: Behavioral and Reproductive Release by Competing Aphids

Colonizing stem mothers of the gall—forming aphid Pemphigus betae defend galls sites on narrowleaf cottonwood, Populus angustifolia to establish microterritories 3—5 mm in length.