Parental imprinting of the mouse H19 gene

@article{Bartolomei1991ParentalIO,
  title={Parental imprinting of the mouse H19 gene},
  author={Marisa S. Bartolomei and Sharon Zemel and Shirley Marie Tilghman},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1991},
  volume={351},
  pages={153-155}
}
THE mouse H19 gene encodes one of the most abundant RNAs in the developing mouse embryo1. It is expressed at the blastocyst stage of development, and accumulates to high levels in tissues of endodermal and mesodermal origin (H. Kim, unpublished result). After birth the gene is repressed in all tissues except skeletal muscle. It lacks a common open reading frame in the 2.5-kilobase RNA, but has considerable nucleotide sequence similarity between the genes of rodents and humans2,3. Expression of… 
The structural H19 gene is required for transgene imprinting.
TLDR
In contrast to a previous report in which overexpression of a marked H19 gene was a prenatal lethal, expression of the M. spretus transgene had no deleterious effect, leading to the conclusion that the 20-base insertion in the marked gene created a neomorphic mutation.
Deletion of the H19 transcription unit reveals the existence of a putative imprinting control element.
TLDR
A targeted deletion of the H19 transcription unit by insertion of a neo replacement cassette is generated and indicates that an imprinting control element is located within the region 10 kb upstream of H19.
The H19 gene: regulation and function of a non-coding RNA
TLDR
The H19 gene encodes a 2.3-kb non-coding mRNA which is strongly expressed during embryogenesis and has been described as a putative tumour suppressor gene.
Expression of a modified H19 RNA does not cause embryonic lethality in mice
TLDR
It is demonstrated that, contrary to published reports, expression of the H19Xba RNA does not cause embryonic lethality in mice, and H19xba knockin mice are fully viable, whether the H 19Xba allele is inherited paternally or maternally.
Expression of H19 and Igf2 genes in uniparental mouse ES cells during in vitro and in vivo differentiation.
TLDR
The extent of non-imprinted expression of H19 and Igf2 in uniparental mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells during in vitro differentiation, and differentiation in teratomas is analysed using Northern blot and in situ hybridisation analysis to indicate that both imprinting andNon-imprinting mechanisms regulate transcription of these genes.
Imprinted expression and methylation of the mouse H19 gene are conserved in extraembryonic lineages.
TLDR
Test the correlation between differential methylation and imprinted expression by analyzing the mouse H19 gene in the undermethylated extraembryonic tissues and results lend further support to the hypothesis that DNA methylation confers the imprint on H19.
Parental-origin-specific epigenetic modification of the mouse H19 gene
TLDR
It is shown that specific sites in the CpG island promoter and 5′ portion of the gene are methylated only on the paternal allele, and active maternal alleles in chromatin of MatDi7 embryos are more sensitive and accessible to nucleases, therefore hypermethylation and chromatin compaction in the region of the H19 promoter is associated with repression of the paternally inherited copy of the genes.
Expression of the imprinted gene H19 in the human fetus
TLDR
The expression pattern of H19 in the human fetal tissues was similar to its expression in the mouse, and paralleled, with some exceptions, the expression of IGF‐II in human fetuses, and was relevant to the evolution of Wilms' tumor.
H19 gene expression is up-regulated exclusively by stabilization of the RNA during muscle cell differentiation
TLDR
It is shown that stabilization of the RNA is solely responsible for its accumulation during in vitro muscle cell differentiation and that inhibition of protein synthesis results in a dramatic destabilization of H19 RNA in proliferating mouse C2C12 myoblastic cells but not in differentiated cells.
H19 acts as a trans regulator of the imprinted gene network controlling growth in mice
TLDR
It is proposed that the H19 gene participates as a trans regulator in the fine-tuning of this imprinted gene network in the mouse embryo, which is the first in vivo evidence of a functional role for the H 19 RNA.
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