Parental choice on normalising cosmetic genital surgery

  title={Parental choice on normalising cosmetic genital surgery},
  author={Lih Mei Liao and Dan Wood and Sarah M Creighton},
  journal={BMJ : British Medical Journal},
Between a rock and a hard place 

Hypospadias and the Performative, Psychological and Perfect Penis

This chapter examines historical and contemporary reasoning by British medical professionals for cosmetic surgical interventions on boys’ penises, and explores the different ideas of what a penis “means” and is considered to be for, in medical accounts of hypospadias.

The Psychosocial Impact of Disorders of Sexual Development

Four themes emerged from the literature search; psychological support and treatment for parents and patients, the need for holistic management, quality of life assessment and identification of sociocultural factors that impact psychological health in DSD patients.

Diagnosing sex: Intersex surgery and ‘sex change’ in Britain 1930–1955

A history of intersex surgeries in Britain and the interaction with medical and popular discourses around ‘sex-change’ between 1930 and 1955 is explored.

The need for support and education for parents of children with reproductive differences

A large number of adults with differences of sex development may defy “male/female” categorisation, and standardised, balanced education can promote acceptance.

Legal, ethical, and human rights considerations for physicians treating children with atypical or ambiguous genitalia.

The treatment teams' ethical and legal responsibilities are examined and advice for treatment teams to follow that will protect their patients and their practices is provided.

Re-thinking the Zero Tolerance Approach to FGM/C: the Debate Around Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery

Drawing on the burgeoning medical, social science, and humanities literature surrounding labiaplasty, the paper documents the narrowing of aesthetic standards governing ‘normal’ genital appearance and finds that, in addition to adult women, thousands of adolescents have undergone these operations whose long-term health consequences are unknown.

The blurred distinction between therapeutic and non-therapeutic medical interventions for intersex children in Australia

ABSTRACT The international community’s response to intersex children’s issues lacks consensus, particularly in the context of medical interventions. Some States prohibit non-consensual genital

Does Patient-centered Care Change Genital Surgery Decisions? The Strategic Use of Clinical Uncertainty in Disorders of Sex Development Clinics

Clinicians use clinical uncertainty about surgery strategically to direct parents toward perceived clinically appropriate decisions, finding that clinicians and parents aim for parent-centered rather than infant-centered care.



Discordant sexual identity in some genetic males with cloacal exstrophy assigned to female sex at birth.

Routine neonatal assignment of genetic males to female sex because of severe phallic inadequacy can result in unpredictable sexual identification, which should be reexamined in the light of these findings.

Shaping parents: impact of contrasting professional counseling on parents' decision making for children with disorders of sex development.

There is a danger of medicalized or demedicalized parentalism resulting in irreversible and inadequately grounded decisions, regardless of the consensus statement of 2005 and the subsequent call for multidisciplinary management.

Evaluation of the Newborn With Developmental Anomalies of the External Genitalia

Which newborns among those with abnormal genital development need to be screened for intersexuality, to outline the investigations necessary, and to suggest indications for referral to a center with experience in the diagnosis and management of these disorders are suggested.

Normalizing Intersex: The Transformative Power of Stories

Commentaries on these narratives by experts from various disciplines are included in this issue, with each raising questions that hopefully enhance rather than regulate the voices of people with intersex traits.