Parental Smoking Modifies the Relation between Genetic Variation in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF) and Childhood Asthma

Abstract

BACKGROUND Polymorphisms in the proinflammatory cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA, also called TNF-beta) have been associated with asthma and atopy in some studies. Parental smoking is a consistent risk factor for childhood asthma. Secondhand smoke and ozone both stimulate TNF production. OBJECTIVES Our goal was… (More)

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