Parent–offspring and sibling conflict in Galápagos fur seals and sea lions

@article{Trillmich2007ParentoffspringAS,
  title={Parent–offspring and sibling conflict in Gal{\'a}pagos fur seals and sea lions},
  author={Fritz Trillmich and Jochen B. W. Wolf},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  year={2007},
  volume={62},
  pages={363-375}
}
Parent–offspring conflict theory is well supported by theoretical arguments. However, empirical observations are often difficult to interpret and have contradicted one of its most appealing predictions that parent and offspring should disagree over killing of nest or littermates. We present the first examples of deadly conflict between siblings of different cohorts. In Galápagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki), mothers often wean their single… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Mother-offspring relations and transition to independence in the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki)
TLDR
The role of self-feeding behaviour of juveniles in modifying some continuous and flexible maternal supply of resources has been highlighted and the influence of environmental conditions, maternal provisioning and juvenile foraging decisions on juvenile survival has been shown.
When were the weaners weaned? Identifying the onset of Australian sea lion nutritional independence
TLDR
Stable isotope analysis of temporally matched whisker sections combined with telemetry data on nutritionally dependent Australian sea lion pups are used to determine the weaning process and characterize the transition to nutritional independence, suggesting pups undergo a gradual transition to independent foraging during a 3- to 6-month period before the onset of the next reproductive effort.
Maternal response to neonatal sibling conflict in the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta
TLDR
These findings represent a complex example of parent–offspring conflict and support both the insurance cub hypothesis and resource tracking hypothesis that mothers endeavor to keep all offspring alive for as long as possible in the event that the dominant sibling dies or that resources provide for the rearing of twins.
Do newborn domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus compete for thermally advantageous positions in the litter huddle?
TLDR
In newborn rabbits, competition for the mother’s milk exists alongside mutual “cooperative” benefits of littermate presence, and it is concluded that rather than competing for thermally advantageous positions within the huddle newborn rabbits share out thermologically advantageous positions as they move in a continual dynamic flow through it.
The elephant in the family: Costs and benefits of elder siblings on younger offspring life-history trajectory in a matrilineal mammal.
TLDR
The results highlight the general complexity of sibling effects, but broadly that elder siblings can influence the life-history trajectory of subsequent offspring, and stress the importance of considering all life stages when evaluating sibling effects on life trajectories.
The Galapagos sea lion: adaptation to spatial and temporal diversity of marine resources within the archipelago
TLDR
Time at the colony proves the best predictor of reproductive success, which reflects the long drawn-out reproductive season often lasting 6 months, and Juveniles need exceptionally long to become nutritionally independent.
Lazy sons, self-sufficient daughters: are sons more demanding?
TLDR
The results show that during the first 2 years of life, sons were much less likely than daughters to forage independently, despite very similar diving abilities, and the observed difference in reliance on self-feeding between male and female offspring is consistent with the idea that males demand more.
The functional role of sibling aggression and “best of a bad job” strategies in cichlid juveniles
TLDR
It is found that the juveniles of this species are highly aggressive and that larger juveniles are more aggressive toward their smaller siblings, and that subordinate juveniles may disperse from natal nests and sneak into new nests to enhance their rank.
First Report of Maternal Interference Behaviour towards Sibling Aggression in the Shell-brooding Cichlid Lamprologus ornatipinnis (Cichlidae)
  • S. Satoh
  • Biology
    Journal of Ichthyology
  • 2021
TLDR
For the first time, mother interference towards aggressive sibling competition in the shell-brooding cichlid Lamprologus ornatipinnis is reported, where the mother approached the fighting juveniles vigorously and chased them around, and severe fighting between the two juveniles was halted.
The Effects of Birth Weight and Maternal Care on Survival of Juvenile Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus)
TLDR
Evidence suggests that western Steller sea lions utilize a somewhat different maternal strategy than those in the eastern distinct population, which results in better survival to age 1, but greater mortality between ages 1 and 3 compared to the eastern population.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 49 REFERENCES
Mutual Mother-Pup Recognition in Galápagos Fur Seals and Sea Lions: Cues Used and Functional Significance
TLDR
The analysis of the PACs of mothers and the bleats of pups shows that interindividual variability of calls provides a sufficient basis for individual recognition in both species.
Maternal investment and sex-allocation in the Galapagos fur seal, Arctocephalus galapagoensis
TLDR
Data on sex ratio at birth, different growth rates, and weaning age of the sexes are typical of otariid seals as a group and fit Maynard Smith's (1980) model of the evolution of sex allocation better than Fisher's (1930).
MALE REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGY AND THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERNAL STATUS IN THE ANTARCTIC FUR SEAL ARCTOCEPHALUS GAZELLA
TLDR
Male reproductive success in the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella is analyzed by combining a microsatellite paternity analysis spanning seven consecutive breeding seasons with detailed behavioral data on both sexes, finding no evidence of alternative male reproductive tactics such as aquatic or sneaky terrestrial mating.
Parent blue-footed boobies suppress siblicidal behavior of offspring
TLDR
Evidence of post-hatching parental regulation in blue-footed booby broods is consistent with Theory predicts selection for such regulation in siblicidal birds that are likely to experience genetic parent-offspring conflict over the value of subordinant nestlings.
Maternal response to neonatal sibling conflict in the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta
TLDR
These findings represent a complex example of parent–offspring conflict and support both the insurance cub hypothesis and resource tracking hypothesis that mothers endeavor to keep all offspring alive for as long as possible in the event that the dominant sibling dies or that resources provide for the rearing of twins.
The Behavioral Ecology of Maternal Effort in Fur Seals and Sea Lions
TLDR
The flexibility of the rearing strategy of temperate and tropical species permits mothers to adjust phenotypically to variance in food availability thus partly masking the theoretically expected trade-offs in the life history of these species.
Sibling competition in guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus): scrambling for mother’s teats is stressful
TLDR
Sibling competition in the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), which has two teats, but frequently bears litters of up to five pups, is studied to fit better with models of scramble competition than with those of honest signalling.
Insurance reproductive value and facultative brood reduction
TLDR
This work suggests that RV i includes two categories of offspring: replacements for failed senior offspring (substitute offspring, RV s ), and extra survivors of random mortality (lottery offspring, LV l ) which differ in whether survival of the marginal offspring is conditional on the death of an older sibling.
Parent-offspring conflict: A case of arrested development.
TLDR
The theory of parent-offspring conflict provides a plausible evolutionary foundation for the dissonant behavioral interactions commonly observed between adults and their progeny, but assessments of basic assumptions about what both parties 'really want' need to be linked to experimentation, field-oriented modelling and pluralism.
Parent-Offspring Conflict
When parent-offspring relations in sexually reproducing species are viewed from the standpoint of the offspring as well as the parent, conflict is seen to be an expected feature of such relations. In
...
1
2
3
4
5
...