Parasocial Compensation Hypothesis

  title={Parasocial Compensation Hypothesis},
  author={T. Phillip Madison and Lance Porter and Al Greule},
  journal={Imagination, Cognition and Personality},
  pages={258 - 279}
In America, socializing with friends has become a functional alternative to watching television. Such a drastic change in how we spend free time demands a closer look at media effects. The study at hand invokes intrapersonal communication research and parasocial interactions and relationships from the media effects literature, synthesizing a new line of research in the process. We ask, “What functions and characteristics of parasociability predict parasocial compensation for real-life… Expand

Tables from this paper

Fostering a young audience's media-induced travel intentions: The role of parasocial interactions
Abstract The study applied the concept of parasocial interaction (PSI) to TV programs to identify whether it triggers a young audience's travel intentions. Although viewing documentary series thatExpand
Parasocial Relationships with Media Personae: Why They Matter and How They Differ Among Heterosexual, Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents
ABSTRACT Parasocial relationships are social bonds audiences develop with media personae. Parasocial relationships may be particularly meaningful for those who experience obstacles developingExpand
Friends in books: The influence of character attributes and the reading experience on parasocial relationships and romances
Abstract While studies on parasocial relationship (PSR) have been conducted for nearly 60 years in various media contexts, research on PSR with book characters has been neglected so far. To closeExpand
Imagined interactions and identity in the works of Joss Whedon
Abstract Joss Whedon has presented several examples of imagined interactions and how they relate to real-life communication, specifically how they relate learning about and playing with one’s ownExpand
Evolutionary Psychological Perspective on Peer Victimization: Relations with Attachment Security and Dating and Sexual History
The present study examined peer victimization among adolescents from an evolutionary psychological perspective. With reference to sexual selection, life history theory, and attachment research, weExpand
Dancing on My Own: Parasocial Love, Romantic Loneliness, and Imagined Interaction
  • Mu Hu, Bingqing Zhang, Yinghe Shen, Jing Guo, Shuwen Wang
  • Imagination, Cognition and Personality
  • 2021
The present study examined the relationships between people's romantic loneliness, parasocial love (PSL), and imagined interaction (II) with media figures they viewed as romantic partners. TwoExpand
Parasocial interactions and digital characters: the changing landscape of cinema and viewer/character relationships
ABSTRACT This study investigates whether parasocial interactions (PSIs) vary in strength depending on whether a character is created entirely through computer-generated imagery (CG), a hybridExpand
How a Retailer’s Website Quality Fosters Relationship Quality: The Mediating Effects of Parasocial Interaction and Psychological Distance
The research reveals that parasocial interaction can occur not only from interactions with brands but also between customers and a retail website, and supports the value of using appropriate website strategies to build an intimate brand–customer relationship. Expand
Parasocial Interactions with Basketball Athletes of Color in Online Mediated Sports
ABSTRACT A two (Black athlete vs. Asian athlete) by two (Black viewer vs. Asian viewer) by two (male vs. female) mixed factorial experiment was designed to examine sports viewers’ parasocialExpand
Everyday (Imagined) Talk: An Exploration of Everyday Conversational Topics and Imagined Interaction Features
Imagined interactions (IIs), a cognitive process generating mental imagery of conversations, play an important role in interpersonal relationships. This study investigates the frequency of everydayExpand


Attribution in Social and Parasocial Relationships
This study examined social and parasocial interaction from interpersonal attribution perspectives. Parasocial interaction is a perceived interpersonal relationship on the part of a television viewerExpand
A conceptual model was developed predicting parasocial interaction from both a social interaction need due to loneliness and instrumental television news use. Questionnaires were completed by 329Expand
Parasocial Breakups: Measuring Individual Differences in Responses to the Dissolution of Parasocial Relationships
A self-report measure is presented for assessing the expected reactions of television viewers to the loss of parasocial relationships. Based on three separate samples, the measure is validated andExpand
Loneliness, Gender, and Parasocial Interaction: A Uses and Gratifications Approach
This study investigates how unfulfilled interpersonal needs due to loneliness are met by mediated communication, specifically through parasocial interaction. Emotional (family and romantic), social,Expand
When Good Friends Say Goodbye: A Parasocial Breakup Study
This study examines viewers' reactions to parasocial breakup with mediated characters in light of interpersonal and mass communication theories. Following the airing of the last episode of theExpand
Interpersonal and psychological predictors of parasocial interaction with different television performers
The study examined the relationship of interpersonal homophily and self‐esteem with the development of parasocial interaction. “Attitude”; homophily was found to be the strongest predictor, among theExpand
Parasocial Break-Up from Favorite Television Characters: The Role of Attachment Styles and Relationship Intensity
This study examined the responses of television viewers to the potential loss of their favorite television characters. A sample of 381 Israeli adults completed questionnaires, including questionsExpand
Viewer Aggression and Homophily, Identification, and Parasocial Relationships With Television Characters
This study examined the antecedents of viewer relationships experienced with television characters. Based on social cognitive theory, we considered how trait aggression helped explain identification,Expand
Development and validation of a parasocial interaction measure: The audience‐persona interaction scale
This research attempted to develop a multidimensional measure of parasocial interaction. A 47‐item questionnaire derived from qualitative responses was submitted to principal components analysis ‐Expand
The People We Meet
A recent Bureau of Labor Statistics study reported Americans spend more time watching television than engaging in interpersonal activities. At the same time, television content is increasing in bothExpand