Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) parasitizing Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

@article{Poinar2012ParasitylenchusBN,
  title={Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) parasitizing Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)},
  author={G. Poinar and T. Steenberg},
  journal={Parasites \& Vectors},
  year={2012},
  volume={5},
  pages={218 - 218}
}
BackgroundThe harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is native to central and eastern Asia and was purposely introduced into Europe to control aphids. While it proved to be a good biological control agent, its rapid spread and buildup of large populations made it a nuisance, since it overwinters in homes, emits unpleasant odors, stains fabrics, occasionally bites humans and feeds on apples, pears and grapes. Aside from the above, the ravenous appetite of H… Expand
Coinvasion by the ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and its parasites, Hesperomyces virescens (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) and Parasitylenchus bifurcatus (Nematoda: Tylenchida, Allantonematidae), in the Caucasus
The study of parasites in recently established populations of invasive species can shed light on the sources of invasion and possible indirect interactions between the alien species and native ones.Expand
Co-invasion of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis and its parasites Hesperomyces virescens fungus and Parasitylenchus bifurcatus nematode to the Caucasus
TLDR
Examination of ladybird specimens collected in Sochi in 2018 have shown that 53% of them are infested with Hesperomyces virescens fungi and Parasitylenchus bifurcatus nematodes, which indicates that population of H. axyridis in the Caucasus cannot derive exclusively from released specimens, and indicates that they appeared as a result of co-invasion with their host. Expand
Predators and parasitoids of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, in its native range and invaded areas
TLDR
It is concluded that enemy release cannot be excluded as a possible mechanism contributing to the spread and increase of H. axyridis in the early stages of invasion, but adaptation of parasitoids may lead to novel associations which might offset previous effects of enemy release. Expand
First report of nematodes Parasitylenchus bifurcatus Poinar & Steenberg, 2012 parasitizing multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) in Slovenia.
TLDR
The Parasitylenchus bifurcatus nematode species compromises fecundity of its host and has therefore a potential to be used as a biological control agent to control high abundance of invasive H. axyridis ladybirds. Expand
Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a host of the parasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales, Laboulbeniaceae): A case report and short review
TLDR
It is hypothesize that the acquisition of H. axyridis as a host by H. virescens and other parasites that require close contact of host individuals for efficient transmission may have further consequences for the abundance and distribution of these parasites, including the expansion of their ranges to other continents colonized by invasive populations of this ladybird. Expand
A "clean" alien species? Parasites of the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
TLDR
This paper reports for the first time the infection of H. axyridis by the eugregarine Gregarina barbarara in NW Poland, indicating that the multicoloured Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridi is rarely infested or infected by parasites. Expand
Invasive alien species under attack: natural enemies of Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands
TLDR
The results indicate that these natural enemies are starting to use H. axyridis as a host, but are as yet not sufficiently abundant to control the population. Expand
The infection of Harmonia axyridis by a parasitic nematode is mediated by entomopathogenic bacteria and triggers sex-specific host immune responses
TLDR
Evidence is provided that the female immune system responds much more strongly to the nematodes and provokes a more robust invasion strategy involving the bacterial mutualists, which could help develop a biological strategy to counter the spread of this insect pest. Expand
Parasites of Harmonia axyridis: current research and perspectives
TLDR
This study presents a review of the parasites of H. axyridis, discussing their distributions and effects on host populations across the host’s native and invasive range. Expand
Harmonia axyridis: how to explain its invasion success in Europe
TLDR
It is shown that in northwestern Europe H. axyridis has a period of real diapause starting at the end of October and shifts to a quiescent state in December, and can become active rapidly when temperature rises in spring, but, nevertheless, it is not reported to be active earlier in the year than native species. Expand
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References

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IMPACT OF HARMONIA AXYRIDIS (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE) ON NATIVE ARTHROPOD PREDATORS IN PECAN AND CRAPE MYRTLE
TLDR
Comparisons of the current aphid and arthropod predator populations with the earlier results are compared to determine the impact of H. axyridis, which was found to be the dominant predator of aphid populations. Expand
Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae), a parasite of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter)(Hemiptera: Saldidae) on the Oregon coast
  • G. Poinar
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Parasites & Vectors
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TLDR
It is proposed that Halophilanema adapted a parasitic existence fairly recently, evolutionarily speaking and was probably a free-living intertidal or shore nematode that fed on microorganisms, especially fungi, in the intert tidal habitat and became parasitic after saldids entered the environment. Expand
Parasitylenchus sp. (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae) parasitizing field populations of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
TLDR
Adults of the invasive harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, were found to be parasitized by nematodes (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae) in Denmark, with prevalence ranging from 2 to 33%. Expand
Living with the enemy: parasites and pathogens of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis
TLDR
An overview of the parasites and pathogens of coccinellids with a particular focus on H. axyridis as a host is provided and it is predicted that H.Axyridis could benefit from both enemy release and EICA within the introduced range but require further empirical evidence. Expand
The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control, and non-target impacts
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  • Journal of insect science
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TLDR
This literature review was compiled for two reasons: to assist other researchers as a reference, summarizing most of the voluminous body of literature on H. axyridis pertaining to its biology, life history, uses in biological control, and potential non-target impacts, and to be a case study on the impacts of an exotic generalist predator. Expand
Tylenchida: parasites of plants and insects.
TLDR
This expanded edition of the tylenchida is a reference work on the important group of nematodes and should be a resource for plant nematologists and plant pathologists. Expand
Entomopathogenic fungi recorded from the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis.
TLDR
The larval stage was most susceptible to fungal infection, as confirmed through bioassay with I. farinosa, which is the first record of entomopathogenic fungi infecting larvae and pupae. Expand
Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, to Sesquiterpene Semiochemicals
TLDR
The results support the potential usefulness of (E)-β-farnesene and (−)- β-caryophyllene in push–pull strategies that use H. axyridis as a biological control agent in aphid-infested sites or to control this new urban pest in residential structures. Expand
INFECTION SUCCESS IN NOVEL HOSTS: AN EXPERIMENTAL AND PHYLOGENETIC STUDY OF DROSOPHILA‐PARASITIC NEMATODES
TLDR
It is shown that the potential host ranges of the nematodes are much larger than their actual ranges, even for parasites with only one known host species in nature, which explains the widespread host switching observed in comparisons of nematode and Drosophila phylogenies. Expand
Description, biologie et importance d'une nouvelle espèce d'Allantonematidae [Nématode] parasite des coccinelles aphidiphages:Parasitylenchus coccinellinae, n. sp.
TLDR
In reducing considerably the fecondity of the females at the end of the summer, Parasitylenchus coccinellinae represents an important factor by a striking reduction of the population of those Coccinellids which are beginning their hibernation. Expand
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