Parasitology: Parasite survives predation on its host

  title={Parasitology: Parasite survives predation on its host},
  author={Fleur Ponton and Camille Lebarbenchon and Thierry Lef{\`e}vre and David G. Biron and David F. Duneau and David P Hughes and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Thomas},
As prisoners in their living habitat, parasites should be vulnerable to destruction by the predators of their hosts. But we show here that the parasitic gordian worm Paragordius tricuspidatus is able to escape not only from its insect host after ingestion by a fish or frog but also from the digestive tract of the predator. This remarkable tactic enables the worm to continue its life cycle. 

Parasitoid Increases Survival of Its Pupae by Inducing Hosts to Fight Predators

It is shown that braconid parasitoids induce their caterpillar host (Thyrinteina leucocerae) to behave as a bodyguard of the parasitoid pupae, and the presence of bodyguard hosts resulted in a two-fold reduction in mortality of parasitoidal pupae.

Field evidence for non-host predator avoidance in a manipulated amphipod

For the first time, to the authors' knowledge, a study used ecological tools to bring field evidence for the spatial avoidance of dead-end predators in a manipulated amphipod.

Parasite transmission between trophic levels stabilizes predator–prey interaction

Using a mathematical model, host manipulation can stabilise community dynamics and suggests that host manipulation is a consequence of self-organized behavior of the parasite populations that allows permanent coexistence with the hosts and plays a key role in community stability.

Context-dependent fitness effects of behavioral manipulation by a parasitoid

The results show that fitness effects of behavioral manipulation should be evaluated in a setting that includes all relevant components of the natural food web, and that the effects of Behavioral manipulation of the host depend on the ecological context.

The underrated importance of predation in transmission ecology of direct lifecycle parasites

It is demonstrated that predators and prey often share more monogenean parasite genera than explained by host habitat ecology, geographical distribution and phylogeny, which suggests that predation may play an important role in promoting monogeneans host range expansion.

Induced niche shift as an anti-predator response for an endoparasitoid

The first evidence of induced emergence in an insect parasitoid is presented, and it is suggested that this mechanism might be at work in many other species where plasticity in development time allows the individual to perform an adaptive niche shift.

Nematomorph parasites indirectly alter the food web and ecosystem function of streams through behavioural manipulation of their cricket hosts.

This is the first experimental demonstration that host manipulation by a parasite can reorganise a community and alter ecosystem function.

Hairworm response to notonectid attacks

Escape of parasitic water mites from dragonfly predators attacking their damselfly hosts

The extent to which larval arrenurid water mites escape from predatory libellulid dragonflies that are consuming their hosts is examined to show the effect of dragonfly predation on transitioning of mites from parasitizing lestid damselflies.

Water-seeking behavior in worm-infected crickets and reversibility of parasitic manipulation

It is shown that hairworm infection fundamentally modifies cricket behavior by inducing directed responses to light, a condition from which they mostly recover once the parasite is released.



The evolution of parasitic diseases.

Evolution of complex life cycles in helminth parasites

It is suggested that complex cycles in helminths without penetrative infective stages evolve by two essentially different processes, depending on where in the cycle a new host is inserted.

The evolution of trophic transmission.

Parasites and the Behavior of Animals

Life Cycles: Blueprints for R0 describes Behavioral Alterations and Parasite Transmission as well as the Fitness and Longevity of Infected Hosts and the fitness and longevity of infected hosts.

Do hairworms (Nematomorpha) manipulate the water seeking behaviour of their terrestrial hosts?

Results clearly indicate that crickets infected by the nematomorph Paragordius tricuspidatus are more likely to jump into water than uninfected ones and the idea that this manipulation involved water detection from long distances by infected insects is not supported.


Development of larval en- doparasitoids in the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae that parasitize larval stage herbivores in the order Lepidoptera is compared to suggest parasitoid wasps attacking parent, foliar-feeding and concealed hosts may favor rapid development time over size while parasitoids that attack concealed hosts favor size over development time.

The evolution of virulence

Why is there variation in the virulence of infectious diseases? Virulence can have substantial effects on the genetic contribution of both host and pathogen to future generations. Understanding it

On the evolution of virulence and the relationship between various measures of mortality

  • T. Day
  • Medicine
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2002
It is pointed out that relatively deadly pathogens can actually have lower values of α than benign pathogens, demonstrating that α does not, by itself, reflect the extent to which a parasite causes host mortality.

Evolution of Trophic Transmission in Parasites: Why Add Intermediate Hosts?

It is argued that under particular circumstances, adding a second host to a single‐host life cycle is likely to enhance transmission, and an optimality model is used to explore this idea in relation to dispersal strategies known among free‐living species, especially animal dispersal.