Parasites dominate hyperdiverse soil protist communities in Neotropical rainforests

@article{Mah2017ParasitesDH,
  title={Parasites dominate hyperdiverse soil protist communities in Neotropical rainforests},
  author={Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Mah{\'e} and Colomban de Vargas and David Bass and Lucas Czech and Alexandros Stamatakis and Enrique Lara and David Singer and Jordan R. Mayor and John Bunge and Sarah Sernaker and Tobias Siemensmeyer and Isabelle Trautmann and Sarah Romac and C{\'e}dric Berney and Alexey M. Kozlov and Edward A. D. Mitchell and Christophe V. W. Seppey and Elianne Sirn{\ae}s Egge and Guillaume Lentendu and Rainer Wirth and Gabriel Trueba and Micah Dunthorn},
  journal={Nature Ecology \&Evolution},
  year={2017},
  volume={1}
}
High animal and plant richness in tropical rainforest communities has long intrigued naturalists. It is unknown if similar hyperdiversity patterns are reflected at the microbial scale with unicellular eukaryotes (protists). Here we show, using environmental metabarcoding of soil samples and a phylogeny-aware cleaning step, that protist communities in Neotropical rainforests are hyperdiverse and dominated by the parasitic Apicomplexa, which infect arthropods and other animals. These host… 

Yeasts dominate soil fungal communities in three lowland Neotropical rainforests

It is shown, by environmental metabarcoding of soil samples collected in three Neotropical rainforests, that Yeasts dominate the fungal communities in terms of the number of sequencing reads and OTUs.

Persistent patterns of high alpha and low beta diversity in tropical parasitic and free-living protists

The results suggest that the biogeographies of macro-and micro-organismal eukaryotes in lowland Neotropical rainforests are partially structured by the same general processes, as with arthropods, the protists’ high alpha diversity within forests presents problems for estimating their local diversity, and shows that regional diversity cannot be easily estimated.

Consistent patterns of high alpha and low beta diversity in tropical parasitic and free‐living protists

The results suggest that the biogeographies of macro‐ and micro‐organismal eukaryotes in lowland Neotropical rainforests are partially structured by the same general processes.

Contrasted Micro-Eukaryotic Diversity Associated with Sphagnum Mosses in Tropical, Subtropical and Temperate Climatic Zones

Sphagnum-dominated ecosystem plays major roles as carbon sinks at the global level. Associated microbial communities, in particular, eukaryotes, play significant roles in nutrient fixation and

Contrasting Responses of Protistan Plant Parasites and Phagotrophs to Ecosystems, Land Management and Soil Properties

Investigation of Cercozoa and Endomyxa in soil using Illumina sequencing provides new insights into the functional organization of soil biota and indications for a more sustainable land-use management.

Mangroves are an overlooked hotspot of insect diversity despite low plant diversity

It is found that mangroves, a globally imperiled habitat that had been expected to be species-poor for insects, are an overlooked hotspot for insect diversity despite having low plant diversity.

Shotgun metagenomics reveal a diverse assemblage of protists in a model Antarctic soil ecosystem.

The groundwork for integrating the biodiversity and ecology of soil protists into a comprehensive ecological framework of the McMurdo Dry Valley ecosystem is laid and contributes to the understanding of the biodiversity of protist communities in polar regions.

Soil protist function varies with elevation in the Swiss Alps

Using amplicon sequencing of environmental DNA in open habitat soil from 161 locations spanning 2600 m of elevation in the Swiss Alps, it is found that soils are dominated by consumers, followed by parasites and phototrophs, which suggests that the decrease in protist host biomass and diversity towards mountains tops impact protist functional composition.

Protist species richness and soil microbiome complexity increase towards climax vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado

Investigating the soil microbiome across four major vegetation zones of the Brazilian Cerrado finds that protist taxon richness increases towards the tree-dominated climax vegetation, and suggests that increased microbiome complexity might enhance system stability towards climax vegetation.

Metatranscriptomics reveals unsuspected protistan diversity in leaf litter across temperate beech forests, with Amoebozoa the dominating lineage.

Investigating the eukaryotic diversity from 18 samples of one-year beech leaf litter by RNA-based high-throughput sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene found that the proportion of free-living and heterotrophs was much higher than that of parasites and autotrophic groups, opening the way to a better understanding of the role played by the protistan communities and how biodiversity interacts with decomposition processes.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 98 REFERENCES

Global biogeography of highly diverse protistan communities in soil

Soil protistan communities were highly diverse, approaching the extreme diversity of their bacterial counterparts across the same sites, and like bacterial taxa, protistan taxa were not globally distributed, and the composition of these communities diverged considerably across large geographic distances.

Metatranscriptomic census of active protists in soils

This metatranscriptomic study provides the most comprehensive picture of active protist communities in soils to date, which is essential to target the ecological roles of protists in the complex soil system.

Enemies Maintain Hyperdiverse Tropical Forests

  • J. Terborgh
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 2012
Evidence points overwhelmingly to the action of both host-generalist and host-restricted biotic agents as causing most seed and seedling mortality, implying that species diversity is maintained via top-down forcing and that diversity maintenance results from top- down forcing acting in a spatially nonuniform fashion.

Benthic protists: the under-charted majority.

The benthic realm may be the world's largest reservoir of marine protist diversity, with most taxa at present undescribed, according to a comparison of all OTUs against the Protist Ribosomal Reference database.

Arthropod Diversity in a Tropical Forest

This work sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama using a comprehensive range of structured protocols and found that models based on plant diversity fitted the accumulated species richness of both herbivore and nonherbivore taxa exceptionally well.

On the Notion of Favorableness in Plant Ecology

  • J. Terborgh
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1973
The thesis that species diversity is determined by the balance of several dynamic processes: speciation, competition, immigration, adaptation, and extinction is developed and a simple kinetic model places each of these processes in a definite perspective.

Differences in soil micro-eukaryotic communities over soil pH gradients are strongly driven by parasites and saprotrophs.

This study provides an in-depth taxonomic evaluation of micro-eukaryotic diversity, and reveals novel lineages and insights into their relationships with environmental variables across soil gradients.

Pathogens and insect herbivores drive rainforest plant diversity and composition

This study shows experimentally that changes in plant diversity and species composition are caused by fungal pathogens and insect herbivores, and provides an overall test of the Janzen–Connell hypothesis.

Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean

Diversity emerged at all taxonomic levels, both within the groups comprising the ~11,200 cataloged morphospecies of eukaryotic plankton and among twice as many other deep-branching lineages of unappreciated importance in plankton ecology studies.

Protistan community analysis: key findings of a large-scale molecular sampling

It is shown that protistan community patterns are highly consistent within habitat types and geographic regions, provided that sample processing is standardised, and evidence is provided that distribution patterns are not solely resulting from random processes.
...