Parasite virulence, co-infections and cytokine balance in malaria.

  title={Parasite virulence, co-infections and cytokine balance in malaria.},
  author={Raquel M{\"u}ller Gonçalves and Nath{\'a}lia Ferreira Lima and Marcelo U Ferreira},
  journal={Pathogens and global health},
  volume={108 4},
Strong early inflammatory responses followed by a timely production of regulatory cytokines are required to control malaria parasite multiplication without inducing major host pathology. Here, we briefly examine the homeostasis of inflammatory responses to malaria parasite species with varying virulence levels and discuss how co-infections with bacteria, viruses, and helminths can modulate inflammation, either aggravating or alleviating malaria-related morbidity. 
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