Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations

@article{Tybur2016ParasiteSA,
  title={Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations},
  author={Joshua M. Tybur and Y. Inbar and L. Aar{\o}e and Pat Barclay and F. Barlow and M{\'i}che{\'a}l de Barra and D. Becker and Leah Borovoi and I. Choi and Jong An Choi and N. Consedine and Alan Conway and Jane R. Conway and P. Conway and Vera {\'C}ubela Adori{\'c} and Dilara Demirci and A. Fern{\'a}ndez and D. Ferreira and Keiko Ishii and I. Jaksi{\'c} and Tingting Ji and Florian van Leeuwen and David M G Lewis and Norman P. Li and J. McIntyre and Sumitava Mukherjee and Justin H. Park and B. Pawłowski and M. Petersen and David A Pizarro and Gerasimos Prodromitis and P. Prokop and M. J. Rantala and Lisa M Reynolds and B. Sand{\'i}n and Barış Sevi and Delphine De Smet and N. Srinivasan and Shruti Tewari and Cameron Wilson and Jose C. Yong and I. Že{\vz}elj},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  year={2016},
  volume={113},
  pages={12408 - 12413}
}
Significance Pathogens, and antipathogen behavioral strategies, affect myriad aspects of human behavior. Recent findings suggest that antipathogen strategies relate to political attitudes, with more ideologically conservative individuals reporting more disgust toward pathogen cues, and with higher parasite stress nations being, on average, more conservative. However, no research has yet adjudicated between two theoretical accounts proposed to explain these relationships between pathogens and… Expand
Testing the effects of pathogen threat and sexual strategies on political ideology
TLDR
Evidence that manipulating pathogen threat or mate availability resulted in change in political ideology is found, and manipulating mate availability was indirectly associated with greater political conservativism through stronger sociosexual attitudes that favor monogamy. Expand
Of pathogens and party lines: Social conservatism positively associates with COVID-19 precautions among U.S. Democrats but not Republicans
TLDR
Investigation of the relationship between social conservatism and COVID-19 precautionary behavior in light of the partisan landscape of the United States explored whether consumption of, and attitudes toward, different sources of information, as well as differential evaluation of various threats caused by the pandemic shape partisan differences in responses to thePandemic in ways that overwhelm the contributions of social conservatism. Expand
Pathogens and Immigrants: A Critical Appraisal of the Behavioral Immune System as an Explanation of Prejudice Against Ethnic Outgroups
TLDR
The BIS is not a separate or even superordinate explanation of prejudice, compared to those coming from the social sciences, but can offer valuable insights into processes of stigmatization and prejudice, once the role of social learning in the developmental unfolding and activation of psychological mechanisms is taken seriously. Expand
Exposure and Aversion to Human Transmissible Diseases Predict Conservative Ideological and Partisan Preferences
The objective prevalence of and subjective vulnerability to infectious diseases are associated with greater ingroup preference, conformity, and traditionalism. However, evidence directly testing theExpand
Pathogen disgust and interpersonal personality
The behavioral immune system includes motivational systems for avoiding contact with pathogens, including those transmitted by other people. Motivations to avoid others may depend not only on theExpand
Pathogen disgust sensitivity protects against infection in a high pathogen environment
Significance Disgust likely evolved to regulate exposure to pathogen-related stimuli and behaviors. One key prediction, that individuals with greater pathogen disgust sensitivity (PDS) will beExpand
Parasites and politics: why cross-cultural studies must control for relatedness, proximity and covariation
TLDR
This work uses cross-cultural analyses of proposed associations between human cultural traits and parasite load to illustrate the potential problems of failing to correct for these three forms of statistical non-independence. Expand
The Behavioral Immune System Shapes Partisan Preferences in Modern Democracies: Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Voting for Socially Conservative Parties
While there is growing interest in the relationship between pathogen avoidance motivations and partisanship, the extant findings remain contradictory and suffer from a number of methodologicalExpand
Binding Together to Avoid Illness: Pathogen Avoidance and Moral Worldviews
In response to the persistent threat of illness, a coordinated set of psychological mechanisms evolved to protect people (and other organisms) against possible exposure to pathogens. Some researchExpand
Disgust sensitivity and opposition to immigration: Does contact avoidance or resistance to foreign norms explain the relationship?
Abstract Past research suggests that pathogen-avoidance motives (e.g., disgust sensitivity) relate to greater opposition to immigration. Two accounts have been proposed to explain this relationship,Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 54 REFERENCES
Is the Relationship Between Pathogen Avoidance and Ideological Conservatism Explained by Sexual Strategies
Abstract Multiple recent studies report that measures of pathogen avoidance (e.g., disgust sensitivity) correlate with political ideology. This relationship has been interpreted as suggesting thatExpand
Pathogens and Politics: Further Evidence That Parasite Prevalence Predicts Authoritarianism
TLDR
Two studies address inferential limitations associated with cross-national comparisons, and suggest that societal differences in authoritarian governance result, in part, from cultural differences in individuals' authoritarian personalities. Expand
Regional variation in pathogen prevalence predicts endorsement of group-focused moral concerns
According to Moral Foundations Theory, people endorse “individualizing” foundations (Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity) or “binding” foundations (Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, Purity/sanctity) toExpand
Pathogen prevalence predicts human cross-cultural variability in individualism/collectivism
TLDR
The results support the hypothesis that collectivism (compared with individualism) will more often characterize cultures in regions that have historically had higher prevalence of pathogens, and reveal previously undocumented consequences of pathogenic diseases on the variable nature of human societies. Expand
The Parasite-Stress Theory of Values and Sociality
Builds the revolutionary theory that human evolution is subject to parasite and disease stress that shapes human qualities as personality, political tendencies and propensity toward religiosity Expand
Disease avoidance and ethnocentrism: the effects of disease vulnerability and disgust sensitivity on intergroup attitudes
Extending a model relating xenophobia to disease avoidance [Faulkner, J., Schaller, M., Park, J. H., & Duncan, L. A. (2004). Evolved disease-avoidance mechanisms and contemporary xenophobicExpand
Threat(s) and conformity deconstructed: Perceived threat of infectious disease and its implications for conformist attitudes and behavior
Threat has been linked to conformity, but little is known about the specific effects of different kinds of threat. We test the hypothesis that perceived threat of infectious disease exerts a uniqueExpand
Parasites, democratization, and the liberalization of values across contemporary countries
TLDR
It is hypothesized that the variation in values pertaining to autocracy–democracy arises fundamentally out of human (Homo sapiens) species‐typical psychological adaptation that manifests contingently, producing values and associated behaviours that functioned adaptively in human evolutionary history to cope with local levels of infectious diseases. Expand
Institutions, Parasites and the Persistence of In-group Preferences
TLDR
It is found that the effectiveness of government institutions correlates with favoring in-group members, even when controlling for pathogen stress and world region, and that variation in in- group preferences across contemporary nation-states is more consistent with a generalized response to institutions that meet basic needs rather than an evolved response dedicated to pathogens. Expand
Pathogens, personality, and culture: disease prevalence predicts worldwide variability in sociosexuality, extraversion, and openness to experience.
TLDR
In regions that have historically suffered from high levels of infectious diseases, people report lower mean levels of sociosexuality, extraversion, and openness, and alternative explanations are addressed, and possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...