Parapsychological research: A tutorial review and critical appraisal

  title={Parapsychological research: A tutorial review and critical appraisal},
  author={Ray Hyman},
  journal={Proceedings of the IEEE},
  • R. Hyman
  • Published 1 June 1986
  • Psychology
  • Proceedings of the IEEE
Beginning in the 1850s, some eminent scientists such as Robert Hare, Alfred Russel Wallace, and Sir William Crookes investigated the claims of spiritualist mediums and believed that they had demonstrated scientifically the existence of psychic phenomena. Critics, without examining the evidence, dismissed the claims out of hand and charged the offending scientists with gross incompetence or with fraud. Encouraged by the work of these early psychical researchers, a group of scholars founded the… 

Evaluating Parapsychological Claims.

Imagine that you have been assigned to evaluate a parapsychological claim and you are faced with a task in your role as a referee for a professional journal, or you might take on the assignment out of curiosity.

Does psi exist? Replicable evidence for an anomalous process of information transfer.

Most academic psychologists do not yet accept the existence of psi, anomalous processes of information or energy transfer (such as telepathy or other forms of extrasensory perception) that are

Target and Sender Dependencies in Anomalous Cognition Experiments

The ganzfeld database has received considerable attention since Bem and Honorton's (1994) publication. They reported a significant difference between static and dynamic targets, although they did not

The Application of Comparative Psychology to Parapsychology: A Recommendation

The comparative psychological principle of “levels” is proposed to be used as a new research methodology to investigate psi in humans using animals as a receptor and simple organisms such as protozoans and honey bees are started.

Profile Study of Low-Income Population Seeking the Services of the Clinic of the Latin American Center of Parapsychology

Three characteristics were considered: the inability of the healthcare context to reveal the actual origin and nature of the problems experienced by the patients, their socioeconomic situation, and level of education.


Decision augmentation theory (DAT) holds that humans integrate information obtained by anomalous cognition into the usual decision process. The result is that, to a statistical degree, such decisions

The American Institutes for Research Review of the Department of Defense's Star Gate Program: A Commentary

As part of the fiscal year 1995 defense appropriations bill, responsibility for the government-sponsored investigation and use of ESP(1) was transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). In a

Contacting dead people online: The hidden Victorian rationality behind using Internet for paranormal activities.

The aim of this article is to find the rational support behind the belief in the paranormal, by which it is possible to use great scientific devices like computers or smart phones to contact dead

Top-down resolution of visual ambiguity – knowledge from the future or footprints from the past?

The present study demonstrates that any future experiment about sensory or extrasensory perception urgently needs to control for potential perceptual history effects and that temporal aspects of stimulus presentation are of high relevance.



Extrasensory Perception: Research Findings

Although claims of psychic phenomena have been with us since antiquity, the beginning of organized research into the nature of these phenomena is usually associated with the founding in 1882 of the

Alfred Russel Wallace, the Origin of Man, and Spiritualism

A study of Wallace's involvement with spiritualism has revealed the true origin of his well-known divergence from Darwin on the origin of man.

The persistent paradox of psychic phenomena: An engineering perspective

  • R. Jahn
  • Psychology
    Proceedings of the IEEE
  • 1982
Although a variety of so-called psychic phenomena have attracted man's attention throughout recorded history, organized scholarly effort to comprehend such effects is just one century old, and

A perceptual channel for information transfer over kilometer distances: Historical perspective and recent research

The history of scientific inquiry into so-called paranormal perception is presented, some areas of physics are suggested from which a description or explanation of the phenomenon could be forthcoming and the current state of the art in parapsychological research is surveyed.

On science and the supernatural.

As one of the part of book categories, science and the supernatural always becomes the most wanted book.

William Crookes: spiritualism and science.