Paraoxonase: Its antiatherogenic role in chronic renal failure

@article{Prakash2010ParaoxonaseIA,
  title={Paraoxonase: Its antiatherogenic role in chronic renal failure},
  author={Mungli Prakash and Nagaraja M. Phani and Ramkumar Kavya and M. D. Supriya},
  journal={Indian Journal of Nephrology},
  year={2010},
  volume={20},
  pages={9 - 14}
}
Paraoxonase (PON) is an aryldialkylphosphatase, which reversibly binds and hydrolyzes organophosphates. The PON family has three members (PON1, PON2 and PON3); they share structural properties and enzymatic activities. PON1 is shown to reside over high density lipoprotein (HDL) and has both antioxidant and antiatherogenic functions. Function of PON2 and PON3 are speculative and still under research. Several methodologies were developed over the years to determine the activity and mass of PON1… Expand
Activation of paraoxonase 1 after hemodialysis is associated with HDL remodeling and its increase in the HDL2 fraction and VLDL.
TLDR
HD produces an activation of PON1 that can be predicted in part by efficiency of dialysis and in part (25%) by Pon1 shifts to HDL2or VLDL (p<0.01) and the removal of inhibitors and the change in the environment of P ON1 in the micro-heterogeneity of HDL subclasses optimizes PON 1 activity. Expand
In silico study of the binding parameters of various antioxidants with human Paraoxonase 1
Paraoxonases are a group of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of organophosphates. Human Paraoxonase 1 is synthesized in liver and secreted into blood, where it is associated exclusively with HighExpand
Comparison of serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities between iron deficiency anemia patients and chronic kidney disease patients with anemia
TLDR
This markedly decreased ARE activity in CKD patients, which could not be explained by the anemia alone, may have a role in the pathogenesis of increased atherosclerosis in such patients. Expand
Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Is Not Responsible for Decreased Paraoxonase Activity in Chronic Renal Failure
TLDR
Investigation of PON and arylesterase activity, phenotypic distribution of the PON1 enzyme, and lipid profile in low and normal HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) patients with CRF, and renal transplant (TX), found that decreased ariester enzyme activity is not explicable by decreased HDL-C in CRF. Expand
Paraoxonase enzyme activity and dyslipidemia in chronic kidney disease patients.
TLDR
The role of PON in dyslipidemia in the CKD patients is focused on and a new idea for treatment options to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease is developed. Expand
Role of Paraoxonase Activity and Oxidative Stress in Renal Vascular Damage in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
The vascular effects of hyperglycemia can be macrovascular complications or microvascular complications in the form of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. HDL is important in preventingExpand
Relationship between serum paraoxonase and homocysteine thiolactonase activity, adipokines, and asymmetric dimethyl arginine concentrations in renal transplant patients.
TLDR
HTLase activity may be a new predictor of cardiovascular risk in renal failure although it is modulated by other risk factors, and positive associations were noted between PON 1 and HTLase activities. Expand
PONI and its association with oxidative stress in type I and type II diabetes mellitus.
TLDR
PONI is definitely associated with development of the complications of diabetes and may be due to the role of it as an antioxidant like the other antioxidants studied. Expand
Homocysteine and Malondialdeyde (MDA) Levels Associated with the Occurrence of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) in Malaysia
TLDR
The results demonstrated elevation in plasma values of MDA, homocysteine and CRP in patients with CRF, with or without CVD, however, these modifications may be lead to atherosclerosis and consequence CVD event. Expand
Association of Myeloperoxidase and the Atherogenic Index of Plasma in Children with End-Stage Renal Disease
TLDR
Changes in AIP in children with ERSD are associated with the oxidative stress status and myeloperoxidase concentration, and the Atherogenic Index of Plasma was calculated according to the appropriate equation. Expand
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References

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Paraoxonase, a cardioprotective enzyme: continuing issues
TLDR
PON1 mass and activity in the plasma significantly influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and the role of PON2 and PON3 in atherosclerosis and their antioxidant properties with respect to LDL and macrophages also merit further investigation. Expand
Effect of Simvastatin Therapy on Paraoxonase Activity and Related Lipoproteins in Familial Hypercholesterolemic Patients
TLDR
It is concluded that simvastatin may have important antioxidant properties through increasing serum PON1 activity, perhaps as a consequence of reducing oxidative stress, by a mechanism independent of apoAI-containing lipoprotein concentration and without the influence of Pon1-192 and PON 1-55 genetic polymorphisms. Expand
Decrease of serum paraoxonase activity in chronic renal failure.
TLDR
The decrease of paraoxonase activity and thus the reduction of its antiatherogenic properties in renal failure could be an essential factor of premature vascular aging, especially when dialysis is used. Expand
Serum paraoxonase activity in uremic predialysis and hemodialysis patients.
TLDR
Patients on long-term HD have reduced paraoxonase/arylesterase activities and this could be related to reduced HDL-cholesterol and apo AI levels, as well as increased urea and Cr levels in uremia. Expand
Paraoxonases and cardiovascular diseases: pharmacological and nutritional influences
TLDR
Some drugs and nutrients including dietary antioxidants and polyphenols considerably increase the activities of paraoxonases which, in turn, can reduce oxidative stress and atherosclerosis development. Expand
Paraoxonase and Atherosclerosis
TLDR
Preliminary case-control evidence suggests that the quest for dietary and pharmacological means of modifying serum PON1 activity may allow the oxidant model of atherosclerosis to be tested in clinical trials. Expand
Paraoxonase inhibits high-density lipoprotein oxidation and preserves its functions. A possible peroxidative role for paraoxonase.
TLDR
It is concluded that HDL-associated PON possesses peroxidase-like activity that can contribute to the protective effect of PON against lipoprotein oxidation, and may be a major contributor to the antiatherogenicity of this lipop Protein. Expand
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is present in postprandial chylomicrons.
TLDR
It is concluded that postprandial chylomicrons contain PON1, which may function in the removal of atherogenic oxidized lipids and inhibit copper ion-induced LDL oxidation, secondary to hydrolysis of lipid peroxides, a phenomenon which could be related, at least in part, to thechylomicron Pon1 content. Expand
Structural organization of the human PON1 gene.
TLDR
The characterization of a 28-kb contig encompassing 300 bp of 5' sequence, the entire coding region, and 2 kb of 3'-flanking sequence of the PON gene is reported, which indicates that the structural portion of the paraoxonase protein is encoded by nine exons that form the primary transcript through the use of typical splice donor and acceptor sites. Expand
Vitamin C and E Intake Is Associated With Increased Paraoxonase Activity
TLDR
PON1 activity, which is primarily genotype dependent, varies with antioxidant vitamins, cigarette smoking, and statin drug use, and is a better predictor of vascular disease than is the currently described genetic variation in PON1. Expand
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