Parallel repetition of zero-knowledge proofs and the possibility of basing cryptography on NP-hardness

  • Rafael Pass
  • Published 2006 in
    21st Annual IEEE Conference on Computational…


Two long-standing open problems exist on the fringe of complexity theory and cryptography: (1) Does there exist a reduction from an NP-complete problem to a one-way function? (2) Do parallelized versions of classical constant-round zero-knowledge proofs for NP conceal every "hard" bit of the witness to the statement proved? We show that, unless the… (More)
DOI: 10.1109/CCC.2006.33


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