Parallel alterations in the timing of ovarian Ecdysone Receptor and Ultraspiracle expression characterize the independent evolution of larval reproduction in two species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

Although most insects reproduce in the adult stage, facultative larval or pupal reproduction (paedogenesis) has evolved at least six times indepently in insects, twice in gall midges of the family Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Paedogenesis in gall midges involves the precocious growth and differentiation of the ovary in an otherwise larval form. We have… (More)