Paradoxical Reactions to Benzodiazepines: Literature Review and Treatment Options

  title={Paradoxical Reactions to Benzodiazepines: Literature Review and Treatment Options},
  author={Carissa E. Mancuso and Maria G. Tanzi and Michael P. Gabay},
  journal={Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy},
Benzodiazepines frequently are administered to patients to induce sedation. Paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines, characterized by increased talkativeness, emotional release, excitement, and excessive movement, are relatively uncommon and occur in less than 1% of patients. The exact mechanism of paradoxical reactions remains unclear. Most cases are idiosyncratic; however, some evidence suggests that these reactions may occur secondary to a genetic link, history of alcohol abuse, or… 
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Two cases of paradoxical reactions associated with the use of intravenous midazolam are presented, and the management of this complication and its different etiologies are reviewed.
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