Paradise Lost? Social Change and Fa'afafine in Samoa

@article{Schmidt2003ParadiseLS,
  title={Paradise Lost? Social Change and Fa'afafine in Samoa},
  author={Johanna M. Schmidt},
  journal={Current Sociology},
  year={2003},
  volume={51},
  pages={417 - 432}
}
Geographically isolated in the centre of the Pacific, Samoa has only recently become fully incorporated into economic and social forms of globalization. The past few decades have seen significant shifts in the construction and expression of gender and sexuality. Among the groups most affected are the fa'afafine, biological males who express feminine gender identities. These transgendered identities were `traditionally' most often enacted through labour, but fa'afafine subjectivities currently… 
Translating transgender: Using Western discourses to understand Samoan fa'afāfine
The analysis of gender as a socially constructed category is one of the foundations of the sociological project. The concept of transgender is of particular interest, in that it reveals that sex is
Being ‘Like a Woman’: Fa’afāfine and Samoan Masculinity
Fa’afāfine are Samoan males who enact varying degrees and types of feminine behaviour. In this paper I draw on ethnographic data from both Western Samoa and Aotearoa/New Zealand and argue that while
Gender on the Edge: Transgender, Gay, and Other Pacific Islanders
Transgender identities and other forms of gender and sexuality that transcend the normative pose important questions about society, culture, politics, and history. They force us to question, for ex-
‘Let fa’afafine shine like diamonds’: Balancing accommodation, negotiation and resistance in gender-nonconforming Samoans’ counter-hegemony
In the Pacific Island country of Samoa, a gender-nonconforming community known as fa’afafine is said to constitute part of customary tradition and therefore enjoy cultural legitimacy. Yet fa’afafine
Contending Masculinities and the Limits of Tolerance: Sexual Minorities in Fiji
Despite the fact that Fiji is one of only a handful of states to have given constitutional recognition to the rights of sexual minorities in its most recent constitution enacted in 1998, controversy
What Can the Samoan "Fa'afafine" Teach Us about the Western Concept of Gender Identity Disorder in Childhood?
TLDR
It is concluded that the diagnostic category of GIDC should not occur in its current form in future editions of the DSM, as there is no compelling evidence that cross-gender behaviors or identities, in and of themselves, cause distress in the individual.
Shifting Terrains of Transnational Engagement
The women’s movement in Fiji has been described as one of the most vibrant, influential, and active in the Pacific.1 Representatives from this country’s women’s groups have been energetic
Beyond men and women: a critical perspective on gender and disaster.
TLDR
It is argued that the man-woman dichotomy is an insufficient construct with which to address the gendered dimensions of a disaster as it fails to capture the realities of diverse gender minorities in non-Western contexts.
Outwith the law in Samoa and Tonga
In Scotland, the term “outwith” is used to locate something or someone beyond the scope of a specific context or category. It is therefore an exclusionary term, but its boundaries may change
Is Transgendered Male Androphilia Familial in Non-Western Populations? The Case of a Samoan Village
TLDR
The present study indicated that transgendered male androphilia is familial in this particular Samoan village, thus adding to a growing literature demonstrating that male andphilia and gender atypicality have consistent developmental correlates across populations.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 49 REFERENCES
Sites of desire, economies of pleasure : sexualities in Asia and the Pacific
This is an examination of erotic encounters between European, Asian and Pacific people. These essays explore how sexual practice and sexual meanings have been constructed across cultural borders in
Effeminate Males and Changes in the Construction of Gender in Tonga
The earlier term tangata fakafefine, "a man behaving like a woman," denoted those males who preferred women's work. The modern term fakaleiti, derived from the English "lady," now refers to a much
male transvestism and cultural change in Samoa
In Samoa today the transvestite plays a role once played by pre-Christian girls in nighttime exchanges of entertainment. Ambiguous and liminal in “her” relation to gender categories, the Samoan
Contemporary Pacific Societies: Studies in Development and Change
1. Introduction to Contemporary Pacific Societies, Victoria S. Lockwood. I. THE COLONIAL LEGACY AND NATION BUILDING. 2. Tonga's Contemporary Globalizing Strategies: Trading on Sovereignty amidst
Sexual Meanings: The Cultural Construction of Gender and Sexuality
List of contributors preface Introduction: accounting for sexual meanings Sherry B. Ortner and Harriet Whitehead Part I. The Cultural Organization of Gender: 1. The gender revolution and the
Confronting the Margaret Mead Legacy: Scholarship, Empire, and the South Pacific
Foreword Peter Worsley Preface Angela Gilliam and Lenora Foerstel Acknowledgments Part I: The Margaret Mead Legacy 1. Anthropologists in Search of a Culture: Margaret Mead, Derek Freeman, and All the
Quest for the Real Samoa: The Mead/Freeman Controversy and Beyond
Since the controversy began, Homes's restudy has been criticized by Freeman. Now Holmes has published his dissertation findings along with more recent observations on the controversy. Because he
Modernity and Identity
Modernity and Identity is a groundbreaking collective work whichannounces a radical new departure within contemporary debates onmodernism and postmodernism. While dominant conceptions of both
Body/work : aspects of embodiment and culture in Samoa
The body is a central reality of culture and a fundamental site at which culture is expressed, in action and in thought. Yet the body has not been systematically recovered by culture theory, because
Rupture or Continuity? The Internationalization of Gay Identities
L'A. porte son attention sur les processus d'internationalisation de l'identite homosexuelle. Il s'interroge sur la nature de l'identite homosexuelle moderne et etudie le lien entre globalisation et
...
...