Paradigms need hypothesis testing : no evidence for top-down forcing on Adélie and emperor penguin populations

In their recent review article “Paradigm lost, or is top-down forcing no longer significant in the Antarctic marine ecosystem?” Ainley et al. (2007) questioned why Southern Ocean marine ecologists apparently have shifted to a central paradigm where bottom-up forcing by physics and climate change has become the single most important driver of food web… CONTINUE READING