Panic disorder in a breath-holding challenge test: a simple tool for a better diagnosis.

@article{Nardi2003PanicDI,
  title={Panic disorder in a breath-holding challenge test: a simple tool for a better diagnosis.},
  author={Antonio Egidio Nardi and Isabella Nascimento and Alexandre Martins Valença and Fabiana Le{\~a}o Lopes and Marco Andr{\'e} Urbach Mezzasalma and Walter Ara{\'u}jo Zin},
  journal={Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria},
  year={2003},
  volume={61 3B},
  pages={718-22}
}
OBJECTIVE Our aim was to observe if anxiety disorder patients - DSM-IV - respond in a similar way to the induction of panic attacks by a breath-holding challenge test. METHOD We randomly selected 29 panic disorder (PD) patients, 27 social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients, 21 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. They were induced to breath-hold for as long as possible four times with two-minute interval between them. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the test. RESULTS A… CONTINUE READING

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