Panic anxiety, dyspnea, and respiratory disease. Theoretical and clinical considerations.

@article{Smoller1996PanicAD,
  title={Panic anxiety, dyspnea, and respiratory disease. Theoretical and clinical considerations.},
  author={Jordan W. Smoller and Mark H. Pollack and Michael W Otto and Jerrold F. Rosenbaum and Richard L Kradin},
  journal={American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine},
  year={1996},
  volume={154 1},
  pages={6-17}
}
There is intriguing evidence suggesting pathophysiologic relationships among dyspnea, hyperventilation, and panic anxiety. The symptoms of panic attacks and pulmonary disease overlap, so that panic anxiety can reflect underlying cardiopulmonary disease and dyspnea can reflect an underlying anxiety disorder. The pathogenesis of panic may be related to respiratory physiology by several mechanisms: the anxiogenic effects of hyperventilation, the catastrophic misinterpretation of respiratory… CONTINUE READING