Pandemic potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza clade A(H5) viruses

  title={Pandemic potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza clade A(H5) viruses},
  author={Reina Yamaji and Magdi D. Saad and C. Todd Davis and David E. Swayne and Dayan Wang and Frank Y K Wong and John W. McCauley and J S Malik Peiris and Richard J. Webby and Ron A. M. Fouchier and Yoshihiro Kawaoka and Wenqing Zhang},
  journal={Reviews in Medical Virology},
The panzootic caused by A/goose/Guangdong/1/96‐lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5) viruses has occurred in multiple waves since 1996. From 2013 onwards, clade viruses of subtypes A(H5N2), A(H5N6), and A(H5N8) emerged to cause panzootic waves of unprecedented magnitude among avian species accompanied by severe losses to the poultry industry around the world. Clade A(H5) viruses have expanded in distinct geographical and evolutionary pathways likely via long… 

Genetic Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Pakistani Live Bird Markets Reveals Rapid Diversification of Clade Viruses

There is a need for systematic avian influenza surveillance in live bird markets in Pakistan to monitor for potential A(H5Nx) variants that may arise from poultry populations, including mutations associated with increased haemagglutinin affinity to human α-2,6 receptors.

The Biological Characteristics of Novel H5N6 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus and Its Pathogenesis in Ducks

Results indicate that clade H5N6 AIVs have continually evolved and recombined with the H9N2 viruses circulating in Southern China and undergo genetic and pathogenic variations to prevent outbreaks of this disease.

The Genetics of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses of Subtype H5 in Germany, 2006 - 2020.

The H5 A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (gs/GD) lineage emerged in China in 1996 and has genetically diversified into a plethora of clades and subclades and evolved into an assortment of sub- and genotypes, all descendants of the gs/GD virus, which has dominated the epidemiological situation in Germany to date.

Genetic diversity, phylogeography, and evolutionary dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) viruses

Phylogeographic approaches revealed that two independent paths of H5N6 viruses into South Korea and Japan from 2016 to 2018 and provided evidence of Group B and Group C H5n6 viruses were originated from Europe and China, respectively, as regions located in the East Asia–Australian migration flyway, which accelerated the genetic variability and dissemination.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the A/H5N8 subtype, clade, caused outbreaks in Kazakhstan in 2020

It looks justifiable to undertake measures in preparation, such as install sentinel surveillance for human cases of avian influenza in the largest pulmonary units, develop a human A/H5N8 vaccine and human diagnostics capable of HPAI discrimination, according to the results of this study.

Isolation of clade A(H5N8), a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, from a worker during an outbreak on a poultry farm, Russia, December 2020

This study presents the isolation of influenza A(H5N8) virus clade from a poultry worker during an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) among chickens at a poultry farm in

Divergent Reassortment and Transmission Dynamics of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Birds of China During 2021

It is found that Korea is the main output geographic location in the spread of these H5N8 viruses to northern and eastern China, and especially, the co-circulation of H5n8 viruses occurred within China, with central China acted as a seeding population during the H 5N8 epidemic.

Emerging H5N8 avian influenza viruses

The global spread of H5N8 avian influenza viruses is a public health concern and zoonotic potential of AIVs warrants continuous, vigilant monitoring to avert further spillovers that could result in disastrous pandemics.

Susceptibility of common family Anatidae bird species to clade H5N6 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus: an experimental infection study

Results indicate that the subject duck species have a potential to be a source of infection of clade HPAI virus to the environment and other birds sharing their habitats.

Rapid Emergence of the Reassortant H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in a Live Poultry Market in Xinjiang, Northwest China

Results indicated that the reassortant clade H5N2 HPAIVs were rapidly generated from reassortment between the H 5N6 and H9N2 AIVs in the local LPM of Urumqi in 2018.



Evolution, global spread, and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx clade

The evolution, global spread, and pathogenicity of H5 clade HPAI viruses are discussed and a wide range of avian species, including wild and domestic waterfowl, domestic poultry, and even zoo birds, seem to be permissive for infection by and/or transmission of clade 1.3 .

Characterization of a novel reassortant H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus clade in Korea, 2017

Dear Editor, Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 subtype remain a serious concern for both poultry and human health. The clade H5 viruses have evolved into four genetic

Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals

The findings suggest that the recently emerging North American A(H5N2) viruses are not expected to pose a substantial threat to humans and other mammals without further reassortment and/or adaptation and that reassortment with North American viruses has not had a major impact on viral phenotype.

Human Clade A/H5N6 Influenza Virus Lacks Mammalian Adaptation Markers and Does Not Transmit via the Airborne Route between Ferrets

The lack of airborne transmission in the ferret model indicates that A/H5N6 virus does not pose a direct public health threat, despite the fact that it can replicate to high titers throughout the respiratory tracts of ferrets and cause more severe disease than other clade viruses.

Transmission Dynamics of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus A(H5Nx) Clade, North America, 2014–2015

This analysis suggests that >3 separate introductions of HPAIV H5N2 into Midwest states occurred during March–June 2015; transmission to Midwest poultry farms from Pacific wild birds occurred ≈1.7–2.4 months before detection.

Experimental infection of clade 1.1.2 (H5N1), clade (H5N1) and clade (H5N6) highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in dogs

The replication of these three subtypes of the H5 lineage of HPAI viruses in dogs suggests that dogs could serve as intermediate hosts for avian-human influenza virus reassortment if they are also co-infected with human influenza viruses.

Clade avian influenza A (H5N8) outbreak in commercial poultry, Iran, 2016: the first report and update data

The findings indicate that Iran is at high risk of introduction of HPAI H5 of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage from East Asia and highlight the need to maintain adequate monitoring activities in target wild and domestic bird species for H PAI early detection.

Multiple Reassorted Viruses as Cause of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Epidemic, the Netherlands, 2016

This study provides evidence for fast and continuing reassortment of H5 clade viruses, which might lead to rapid changes in virus characteristics, such as pathogenicity, infectivity, transmission, and zoonotic potential.

Intracontinental and intercontinental dissemination of Asian H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (clade in the winter of 2014–2015

Although the illegal movement of poultry and poultry products cannot be ruled out as a cause of intercontinental and intracontinental dissemination of clade H5 HPAIVs during the winter of 2014–2015, transmission of the viruses by infected migratory birds appears to be a more plausible mechanism for their dissemination.