There are apparent similarities in the mechanisms of the intestinal phase of exocrine and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) secretion by the pancreas. To characterize this relationship, we measured incremental responses of protein, bicarbonate, and PP to graded doses of intravenous secretin, caerulein, CCK8, CCK33, bethanechol, and intraduodenally perfused HCl, sodium oleate, and L-phenylalanine in dogs with gastric and pancreatic fistulas and compared them with average postprandial values. Secretin did not release PP at any dose studied, whereas intraduodenal HCl increased PP levels slightly at a load maximal for pancreatic secretion. Caerulein produced dose-related increases in PP secretion (maximal, 106% of meal response) but CCK8 and CCK33 had much less effect at doses equivalent for protein secretion. Bethanechol was a weak stimulant for PP only at the largest tolerable dose. L-Phenylalanine and sodium oleate markedly increased protein secretion, but only oleate clearly stimulated PP. Our results suggest a greater quantitative importance of the intestinal phase for exocrine than endocrine (PP) pancreatic secretion.