Pancreatic pseudocysts in the 21st century. Part I: classification, pathophysiology, anatomic considerations and treatment.
We reviewed 106 consecutive patients with cysts or pseudocysts of the pancreas associated with pancreatitis. A pancreatic fluid collection (PFC) was defined as a limited collection containing pancreatic juice either pure or with pus or blood. Seventy-seven patients presented with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and 29 patients presented with acute pancreatitis (AP). CP-associated PFC was observed in young alcoholic men (mean age 40.8 years) on a high fat, protein, and carbohydrate diet. None of this group had gallstones. In this population, PFC was located in the head of the pancreas in 68% of the cases, was partly extrapancreatic in 22% of the cases, and resolved spontaneously in 9%. AP- associated PFC was as frequent in nonalcoholic men as in nonalcoholic women and presented with gallstones in 48%. They developed later (mean age 53.0 years), resolved spontaneously in 20%, and were located in the body or tail of the gland in 69%. CP-PFC may be designated retention cysts or retention pseudocysts (extrapancreatic); AP-PFC may be designated necrotic pseudocysts.