Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution

  title={Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution},
  author={Betsy Read and Jessica U Kegel and Mary J. Klute and Alan Kuo and Stephane C. Lefebvre and Florian Maumus and Christoph Mayer and John B. Miller and Adam Monier and Asaf A. Salamov and Jeremy Young and Maria Aguilar and Jean-Michel Claverie and Stephan Frickenhaus and Karina Gonz{\'a}lez and Emily K. Herman and Yao-Cheng Lin and Johnathan A. Napier and Hiroyuki Ogata and Analissa F. Sarno and Jeremy Shmutz and Declan C. Schroeder and Colomban de Vargas and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Verret and Peter von Dassow and Klaus Ulrich Valentin and Yves Van de Peer and Glen L Wheeler and Joel B. Dacks and Charles F. Delwiche and Sonya T. Dyhrman and Gernot Gl{\"o}ckner and Uwe John and Thomas A. Richards and Alexandra Z. Worden and Xiaoyu Zhang and Igor V. Grigoriev},
Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering them visible from space. Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also… 

Poleward expansion of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

It is postulate that E. huxleyi may be more sensitive to recent environmental changes than to changing ocean carbonate chemistry, partly because increased availability of CO2(aq) likely alleviates a carbon limitation for the inefficient Rubisco enzyme in these algae.

Phenotypic Variability in the Coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

The results demonstrate that inter-strain genetic variability has greater potential to induce larger phenotypic differences than the phenotypesic plasticity of single strains cultured under a broad range of variable environmental conditions, and highlights the need to reconsider phenotypeic variability in paleoproxy calibrations and model parameterizations to adequately translate findings from single strain laboratory experiments to the real ocean.

Genomic adaptation of the picoeukaryote Pelagomonas calceolata to iron-poor oceans revealed by a chromosome-scale genome sequence

The smallest phytoplankton species are key actors in oceans biogeochemical cycling and their abundance and distribution are affected with global environmental changes. Among them, algae of the

Genomic adaptation of the picoeukaryote Pelagomonas calceolata to temperate iron-poor oceans revealed by a chromosome-scale genome sequence

The complete chromosome-scale assembled genome sequence of Pelagomonas calceolata is reported, revealing the ecological importance of P. calcelata and laying the foundation for a global scale analysis of the adaptation and acclimation strategies of picoalgae in a changing environment.

The role of ocean acidification in Emiliania huxleyi coccolith thinning in the Mediterranean Sea

Ocean acidification is a result of the uptake of an-thropogenic CO 2 from the atmosphere into the ocean and has been identified as a major environmental and economic threat. The release of several

Inter- and intra-specific responses of coccolithophores to CO 2 -induced ocean acidification

It is determined that the responses of coccolithophores to ocean acidification are inter- and intra-specific, and this variation may cause changes to biodiversity and other ecosystem processes in the future ocean.

Repeated species radiations in the recent evolution of the key marine phytoplankton lineage Gephyrocapsa

F fossil and genomic data are combined to show the latest shift in phytoplankton Gephyrocapsa was coincident with a species radiation and suggest that previous shifts have also resulted from cycles of radiation and extinction.

Genome Sequence of Chrysotila roscoffensis, a Coccolithphore Contributed to Global Biogeochemical Cycles

The genome of C. roscoffensis will provide a foundation for understanding the genetic and phenotypic diversification and calcification mechanisms of coccolithophores, and gene families related to cytoskeleton, cellular motility and morphology, and ion transport were expanded.



Targeted metagenomics and ecology of globally important uncultured eukaryotic phytoplankton

Targeted metagenomics analysis of uncultured pico-prymnesiophytes sorted by flow cytometry from subtropical North Atlantic waters reveals a composite nuclear-encoded gene repertoire with strong green-lineage affiliations, which contrasts with the evolutionary history indicated by the plastid genome.

A review of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae), with particular reference to growth, coccolith formation, and calcification-photosynthesis interactions

Older as well as more recently acquired information on reproduction, morphology, ecophysiology, and cell physiology of E. huxleyi is reviewed, emphasizing aspects that are relevant to coccolith formation and calcification–photosynthesis interactions.

Coccolithophores and the biological pump: responses to environmental changes

Summary Coccolithophores, which are considered to be the most productive calcifying organisms on earth, play an important role in the marine carbon cycle. The formation of calcite skeletons in the

Coccolithophores : from molecular processes to global impact

The coccolithophore calcification and the biological pump: response to environmental changes and the structure and morphogenesis of the coccoliths of the CODENET species are evaluated.

Effect of trace metal availability on coccolithophorid calcification

It is suggested that changes in dust deposition can affect biogenic calcification in oceanic regions characterized by trace metal limitation, with possible consequences for CO2 partitioning between the atmosphere and the ocean.

The evolutionary history of haptophytes and cryptophytes: phylogenomic evidence for separate origins

The evolutionary position of haptophytes, an ecologically critical component of the oceans, is resolved and a new hypothesis for the origin of cryptophytes is proposed, which strongly support haaptophytes as sister to the SAR group, possibly together with telonemids and centrohelids.

Coccolithophores: Functional Biodiversity, Enzymes and Bioprospecting

Using a library consisting of 52 strains of E. huxleyi and an ‘in house’ enzyme screening program, the functional biodiversity within this species of fundamental importance to global biogeochemical cycling is assessed, whilst at the same time determining their potential for exploitation in biocatalytic applications.

Nitrate : phosphate ratios and Emiliania huxleyi blooms

Observations suggest that E. huxleyi is able to exploit situations where either phosphorus or nitrogen is limiting to competing species, and indicate that attention should be directed to examining organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and ammonium during E. HuxleyI blooms to better understand the role macronutrients play in these blooms.


The isolation, cloning, and initial characterization of the first AP (ehap1) in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Lohm.) Hay and Mohler are reported, and the expression of ehap1 was found to correlate well with cellular AP activity.