Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion

@article{Ekman1969PanCulturalEI,
  title={Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion},
  author={P. Ekman and E. R. Sorenson and W. Friesen},
  journal={Science},
  year={1969},
  volume={164},
  pages={86 - 88}
}
  • P. Ekman, E. R. Sorenson, W. Friesen
  • Published 1969
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Science
  • Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the pan-cultural element in facial displays of emotion is the association between facial muscular movements and discrete primary emotions, although cultures may still differ in what evokes an emotion, in rules for controlling the display of emotion, and in behavioral consequences. 
    1,280 Citations

    Topics from this paper

    Universals and cultural differences in the judgments of facial expressions of emotion.
    • 1,294
    • PDF
    Laterality of Facial Expressions of Emotion: Universal and Culture-Specific Influences
    • 63
    • PDF
    The recognition of 18 facial-bodily expressions across nine cultures.
    • 10
    Facial Expressions Across the Life Span
    Is there universal recognition of emotion from facial expression? A review of the cross-cultural studies.
    • J. Russell
    • Psychology, Medicine
    • Psychological bulletin
    • 1994
    • 1,141
    • PDF
    A new pan-cultural facial expression of emotion
    • 497
    • PDF

    References

    SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES
    What and Where are the Primary Affects? Some Evidence for a Theory
    • 346
    Dimensionality of the semantic space for communication via facial expressions.
    • C. Osgood
    • Psychology, Medicine
    • Scandinavian journal of psychology
    • 1966
    • 310
    The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
    • 8,164
    Three dimensions of emotion.
    • 960
    • PDF
    Taguiri, "The perception
    • Handbook of Social Psychology,
    • 1954
    Origins, usage and coding of nonverbal behavior, in Communication Theory and Linguistic Models in the Social Sciences
    • 1968
    O~igins, usage and coding of nonverbal behavior. in Comnt~rnication Theory and Linguistic Models
    • 1968
    The emotions and emotion constructs in personality and culture research," in Handbook of Modern Personality Theory, R
    • D. Cattell, Ed. (Aldine, Chicago, in press). 17 October
    • 1968
    J. Apictrlt. Res
    • J. Apictrlt. Res
    • 1968
    Origins, usage and coding of nonverbal behavior
    • Communication Theory and Linguistic Models in the Social Sciences
    • 1968