Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion

  title={Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion},
  author={Paul Ekman and E. Richard Sorenson and W V Friesen},
  pages={86 - 88}
Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the pan-cultural element in facial displays of emotion is the association between facial muscular movements and discrete primary emotions, although cultures may still differ in what evokes an emotion, in rules for controlling the display of emotion, and in behavioral consequences. 
Cultural influences on facial expressions of emotion
Research demonstrates that facial expressions of emotion are both universal and culturally‐specific, but our theoretical understanding of how cultures influence emotions has not advanced since
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