Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion

  title={Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion},
  author={Paul Ekman and E. Richard Sorenson and Wallace V. Friesen},
  pages={86 - 88}
Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the pan-cultural element in facial displays of emotion is the association between facial muscular movements and discrete primary emotions, although cultures may still differ in what evokes an emotion, in rules for controlling the display of emotion, and in behavioral consequences. 

Cultural influences on facial expressions of emotion

Research demonstrates that facial expressions of emotion are both universal and culturally‐specific, but our theoretical understanding of how cultures influence emotions has not advanced since

Universals and cultural differences in the judgments of facial expressions of emotion.

Evidence of cross-cultural agreement in the judgement of facial expression is presented, with agreement very high across cultures about which emotion was the most intense and about the relative intensity among expressions of the same emotion.

American-Japanese Cultural Differences in the Recognition of Universal Facial Expressions

Although the universal recognition of facial expressions of emotion is well documented, few studies have examined how cultures differ in the degree to which they perceive the universal emotions

Laterality of Facial Expressions of Emotion: Universal and Culture-Specific Influences

It is suggested that the left side of the face is more expressive of emotions, is more uninhibited, and displays culture-specific emotional norms and the right side of face is less susceptible to cultural display norms and exhibits more universal emotional signals.

The recognition of 18 facial-bodily expressions across nine cultures.

This work created photographs of facial-bodily expressions of 18 states and presented these to participants in nine cultures and in a well-validated recognition paradigm, participants matched stories of causal antecedents to one of four expressions of the same valence.

Is there universal recognition of emotion from facial expression? A review of the cross-cultural studies.

Facial expressions and emotion labels are probably associated, but the association may vary with culture and is loose enough to be consistent with various alternative accounts, 8 of which are discussed.

Facial Expressions Across the Life Span

  • L. Camras
  • Psychology
    Handbook of Emotional Development
  • 2019
The topic of facial expressions occupies a central role in theory and research on emotion and emotional development. This chapter reviews studies of emotional facial expressions in infants, children,

Evidence for the Universality of Facial Expressions of Emotion

This chapter will introduce facial expressions as one of the primary nonverbal channels that express universal emotions and present scientific evidence for the universality of facial expressions of emotion, including studies of humans across cultures, blind individuals, twins and families, infants, and nonhuman primates.

A new pan-cultural facial expression of emotion

We obtained the first evidence of a facial expression unique to contempt. Contrary to our prediction, this contempt expression was not culture-specific but was recognized by people in Estonia S.S.R.,

Universals and Cultural Variations in 22 Emotional Expressions Across Five Cultures

This investigation collected and coded over 2,600 free-response facial and body displays of 22 emotions in China, India, Japan, Korea, and the United States to test 5 hypotheses concerning universals and cultural variants in emotional expression.



What and Where are the Primary Affects? Some Evidence for a Theory

A set of 69 facial photographs of models simulating affective neutrality and the eight primary affects of interest, enjoyment, surprise, distress, fear, shame, contempt, and anger were presented to a

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

Acknowledgments List of Illustrations Figures Plates Preface to the Anniversary Edition by Paul Ekman Preface to the Third Edition by Paul Ekman Preface to the Second Edition by Francis Darwin

Three dimensions of emotion.

All of you have had to face the problems in the general field of emotion, whether your interest was theoretical or practical. I think you will agree that the field is chaotic. When you try to

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