Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion

@article{Ekman1969PanCulturalEI,
  title={Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion},
  author={Paul Ekman and E. Richard Sorenson and W V Friesen},
  journal={Science},
  year={1969},
  volume={164},
  pages={86 - 88}
}
Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the pan-cultural element in facial displays of emotion is the association between facial muscular movements and discrete primary emotions, although cultures may still differ in what evokes an emotion, in rules for controlling the display of emotion, and in behavioral consequences. 
Cultural influences on facial expressions of emotion
Research demonstrates that facial expressions of emotion are both universal and culturally‐specific, but our theoretical understanding of how cultures influence emotions has not advanced since
Universals and cultural differences in the judgments of facial expressions of emotion.
TLDR
Evidence of cross-cultural agreement in the judgement of facial expression is presented, with agreement very high across cultures about which emotion was the most intense and about the relative intensity among expressions of the same emotion.
American-Japanese Cultural Differences in the Recognition of Universal Facial Expressions
Although the universal recognition of facial expressions of emotion is well documented, few studies have examined how cultures differ in the degree to which they perceive the universal emotions
Laterality of Facial Expressions of Emotion: Universal and Culture-Specific Influences
TLDR
It is suggested that the left side of the face is more expressive of emotions, is more uninhibited, and displays culture-specific emotional norms and the right side of face is less susceptible to cultural display norms and exhibits more universal emotional signals.
The recognition of 18 facial-bodily expressions across nine cultures.
TLDR
This work created photographs of facial-bodily expressions of 18 states and presented these to participants in nine cultures and in a well-validated recognition paradigm, participants matched stories of causal antecedents to one of four expressions of the same valence.
Is there universal recognition of emotion from facial expression? A review of the cross-cultural studies.
  • J. Russell
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychological bulletin
  • 1994
TLDR
Facial expressions and emotion labels are probably associated, but the association may vary with culture and is loose enough to be consistent with various alternative accounts, 8 of which are discussed.
Facial Expressions Across the Life Span
  • L. Camras
  • Psychology
    Handbook of Emotional Development
  • 2019
The topic of facial expressions occupies a central role in theory and research on emotion and emotional development. This chapter reviews studies of emotional facial expressions in infants, children,
A new pan-cultural facial expression of emotion
We obtained the first evidence of a facial expression unique to contempt. Contrary to our prediction, this contempt expression was not culture-specific but was recognized by people in Estonia S.S.R.,
Evidence for the Universality of Facial Expressions of Emotion
The face is the most representative channel of nonverbal behaviors, and it is the channel most studied by scientists. Studies on face and facial expression have their roots in Darwin (The expression
Universals and Cultural Variations in 22 Emotional Expressions Across Five Cultures
TLDR
This investigation collected and coded over 2,600 free-response facial and body displays of 22 emotions in China, India, Japan, Korea, and the United States to test 5 hypotheses concerning universals and cultural variants in emotional expression.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES
What and Where are the Primary Affects? Some Evidence for a Theory
A set of 69 facial photographs of models simulating affective neutrality and the eight primary affects of interest, enjoyment, surprise, distress, fear, shame, contempt, and anger were presented to a
Dimensionality of the semantic space for communication via facial expressions.
  • C. Osgood
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Scandinavian journal of psychology
  • 1966
TLDR
Cluster analyses confirm the existence of some seven to ten regions within this space, densely populated with quasi-synonymous states, which warrant identification as ‘primary affects’.
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
TLDR
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals Introduction to the First Edition and Discussion Index, by Phillip Prodger and Paul Ekman.
Three dimensions of emotion.
All of you have had to face the problems in the general field of emotion, whether your interest was theoretical or practical. I think you will agree that the field is chaotic. When you try to
Taguiri, "The perception
  • Handbook of Social Psychology,
  • 1954
Origins, usage and coding of nonverbal behavior, in Communication Theory and Linguistic Models in the Social Sciences
  • 1968
O~igins, usage and coding of nonverbal behavior. in Comnt~rnication Theory and Linguistic Models
  • 1968
The emotions and emotion constructs in personality and culture research," in Handbook of Modern Personality Theory, R
  • D. Cattell, Ed. (Aldine, Chicago, in press). 17 October
  • 1968
J. Apictrlt. Res
  • J. Apictrlt. Res
  • 1968
Origins, usage and coding of nonverbal behavior
  • Communication Theory and Linguistic Models in the Social Sciences
  • 1968
...
1
2
3
4
...