Palytoxin: A New Marine Toxin from a Coelenterate

@article{Moore1971PalytoxinAN,
  title={Palytoxin: A New Marine Toxin from a Coelenterate},
  author={Richard E. Moore and Paul J. Scheuer},
  journal={Science},
  year={1971},
  volume={172},
  pages={495 - 498}
}
Palytoxin has been isolated from the zoanthids "limu-make-o-Hana" (Tentatively identified as Palythoa sp.) as a noncrystalline, chromatographically pure entity. Apart from polypeptide and protein toxins, it is the most highly toxic substance known, with a lethal dose (LD59) in mice of 0.15 microgram per kilogram by intravenous injection. Unlike the potent toxins batrachotoxin, saxitoxin, and tetrodotoxin which have molecular weights of 500 or less, palytoxin has an estimated molecular weight of… 

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Palytoxin is an extremely poisonous substance associated with marine coelenterates (zoanthids) of the genus Palythoa that was probably noticed for the first time by the Hawaiians who used exudates of a rare, but very toxic species, P. toxica, to poison spear tips for warfare.

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Over the past years the scientific work has brought to light the occurrence of new palytoxin analogs by extensive NMR investigation and a new liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method set up following the Mediterranean toxic outbreaks.

Palytoxins: biological and chemical determination.

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    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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Characterisation of new analogues of palytoxin isolated from an Ostreopsis mascarenensis bloom in the south-western Indian Ocean

A preliminary screening of toxins of the crude extract of Ostreopsis mascarenensis Quod, a benthic dinoflagellate from the south-western Indian Ocean, revealed a neurotoxicity in mice similar to that

Structure Elucidation of Ostreocin D, a Palytoxin Analog Isolated from the Dinoflagellate Ostreopsis siamensis

The structure of ostreocin D, a palytoxin analog isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Ostropsis siamensis, was found to be 42-hydroxy-3,26-didemethyl-19,44-dideoxypalytoxin by detailed 2D NMR

Stereostructure and biological activity of 42-hydroxy-palytoxin: a new palytoxin analogue from Hawaiian Palythoa subspecies.

Functional studies on this new palytoxin-like compound suggest that the new palitoxin analogue and palyToxin itself present similar biological activities.
...

References

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Poisonous and Venomous Marine Animals of the World

Volume 1 ranges from protozoa to platyhelminths; the other volumes, promised for 1967 and 1968, will be devoted to fishes, sea snakes, turtles, etc.

We thank the Dow Chemical Co. through the efforts of Dr. K. Terada for the powdered polyethylene

    Originally, the species was thought to be Palythoa vestitus Verrill, but reinvestigation of the Hawaiian zoanthids by