Palaeoanthropological discoveries in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia

  title={Palaeoanthropological discoveries in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia},
  author={J. Desmond Clark and Berhane Abrha Asfaw and Getaneh Assefa and J. W. K. Harris and Hiro Kurashina and Robert C. Walter and Tim D. White and M. A. J. Williams},
A survey of Ethiopia's Middle Awash Valley in 1981 yielded new and significant archaeological, palaeontological, geological and geochronological results. Included in the new discoveries are hominid fossils from the Pliocene which show primitive cranial anatomy and a femur adapted to bipedality. Archaeological records document human technological change spanning the past 1.5 Myr. 
Ecological and temporal placement of early Pliocene hominids at Aramis, Ethiopia
Radioisotopic dating, geochem-ical analysis of interbedded volcanic ashes and biochronological considerations place the hominid-bearing deposits in the Middle Awash research area of Ethiopia's Afar depression at around 4.4 million years of age.
African Homo erectus: old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia.
Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens, supporting the hypothesis that Middle Pleistsocene Oldowan assemblages represent a behavioral facies of the Acheulean industrial complex.
The Early Stone Age lithic assemblages of Gadeb (Ethiopia) and the Developed Oldowan/early Acheulean in East Africa.
The Early Stone Age sites of Gadeb (Ethiopian South-East Plateau) were excavated under the direction of Desmond Clark in the 1970s. Dated to between 1.45 and 0.7 Ma, Gadeb proved that humans had
Geochronology, stratigraphy and geochemistry of Cindery Tuff in Pliocene hominid-bearing sediments of the Middle Awash, Ethiopia
Cindery Tuff is a subalkaline, rhyolitic air-fall deposit that was probably produced by a mixed-magma eruption, and its age is estimated to be 3.8–4.0 Myr, which implies that associated hominid skull fragments are at least 3.9 Myr old.
The Pliocene Hadar Formation, Afar depression of Ethiopia
  • J. Tiercelin
  • Geology
    Geological Society, London, Special Publications
  • 1986
Summary Along the western margin of the Afar depression there is a fluvio-lacustrine sequence, well known for its hominid fossils, which consists of a 150–300 m thick layer of coarse to fine detrital
Early hominid from Baringo, Kenya
Palaeontological evidence and comparative molecular studies of modern hominoids suggest that major evolutionary changes occurred in the African Hominoidea between 14 Myr and 4 Myr1–3. Unfortunately,
Mio-Pliocene mammals from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia
Abstract The Middle Awash paleontological study area, located in the Afar Rift of Ethiopia, has yielded fossils spanning the last six million years. The geology and geochronology of the Mio-Pliocene
Integrative geochronology calibrates the Middle and Late Stone Ages of Ethiopia’s Afar Rift
How chronological control can be obtained in tectonically active and stratigraphically complex settings to precisely calibrate crucial evidence of technological, environmental, and evolutionary changes during the African Middle and Late Pleistocene is demonstrated.
The Belohdelie frontal: new evidence of early hominid cranial morphology from the Afar of Ethiopia
Results of this study support the phylogenetic hypothesis put forward by many workers that A. afarensis gave rise to the “robust” Australopithecus and A.africanus clades.
Cenozoic Climatic Changes in Deserts: A Synthesis
Deserts are excellent geological, geomorphic, and archaeological museums. The very aridity to which they owe their existence has made them remarkable repositories of past depositional and erosional


Geology and stratigraphy of Neogene deposits, Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia
The Middle Awash Valley, Afar, Ethiopia, contains a sedimentary sequence that is > 1 km thick, spans much of the Neogene, and contains vertebrate fossils throughout. Newly defined formations
Newly discovered fossil hominid skull from the Afar depression, Ethiopia
A specimen recovered during a palaeontological, archaeological and geological survey in the Awash River Valley, Ethiopia is one of the best preserved and most complete of its kind yet discovered in Africa and is unique in its close association with stone tools.
Palaeolithic remains at the Hadar in the Afar region
Studies of Plio–Pleistocene deposits along the Awash River in the Hadar region of Ethiopia have revealed for the first time several Palaeolithic sites. In addition to a large number of artefacts
Fossil mammals and artefacts from the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia
A review of fossil mammalian faunas from the Middle Awash indicates they span most of the later Neogene and document evolutionary change in several mammalian groups, especially Primates, Proboscidea
Early archaeological sites, hominid remains and traces of fire from Chesowanja, Kenya
Recent investigations of Lower Pleistocene sites at Chesowanja have yielded in situ Oldowan and Oldowan-like stone artefacts, evidence of fire and a fragmentary ‘robust’ australopithecine cranium.
Preliminary geology and palaeontology of the Bodo D'ar hominid Site, Afar, Ethiopia
Abstract In late 1976, the major part of an early hominid cranium (Homo sp.) was discovered in the Afar Depression by members of the Rift Valley Research Mission in Ethiopia. The site is adjacent to
Hominid occupation of the East-Central Highlands of Ethiopia in the Plio–Pleistocene
Stone artefacts and fossil evidence suggest that hominids did not reach the high plateau of Ethiopia until ∼1.5 Myr ago. Contact between hominids of the plateau and the Rift Valley seems likely.
A new hominid parietal from Bodo, Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia.
  • B. Asfaw
  • Geography, Medicine
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1983
A piece of left parietal of a Middle Pleistocene hominid, recovered from the Upper Bodo Sand Unit, in the Middle Awash, Ethiopia, is described anatomically and compared to Middle Pleistocene hominids
Preliminary geology, paleontology and paleoecology of a sangoan site at Andalee, Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia
Abstract A rich stone tool assemblage is described of the Sangoan-type from a potentially semi-primary site, in association with a well-preserved fauna, and in paleo-environmental context. The site
Pliocene footprints in the Laetolil Beds at Laetoli, northern Tanzania
Recent excavation of the tuffs of the Laetolil Beds in Tanzania has revealed the presence of a large variety of footprints from the Pliocene. Many of these prints can be correlated with fossilised