Pain management in ruminants.

  title={Pain management in ruminants.},
  author={David E Anderson and W Muir},
  journal={The Veterinary clinics of North America. Food animal practice},
  volume={21 1},
Based on the available literature, the most important tool available in modern veterinary medicine is preemptive analgesia. Veterinarians must capture "opportunities" to prevent the onset of pain, prevent noxious stimuli or their perception, and limit the pain-stress-distress cascade that results in altered behavior and deviation from physiologic norms. Rational treatment of pain requires an appreciation of its consequences, a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that are responsible for… CONTINUE READING

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