Pain in infancy: Neonatal reaction to a heel lance

  title={Pain in infancy: Neonatal reaction to a heel lance},
  author={M E Owens and Ellen H. Todt},
A combined single subject and group design was used to investigate changes in heart rate and crying in response to a heel lance, non-invasive tactile stimulation and baseline periods in 10 male and 10 female infants, each in their second full day of life. Heart rate was measured with an electrocardiogram. Percentage of time crying was computed from observations of audiotapes. Results for individual subjects indicated that heart rate and percentage of crying were consistently increased by the… CONTINUE READING

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