Pain in end-stage renal disease: a frequent and neglected clinical problem.

@article{Santoro2012PainIE,
  title={Pain in end-stage renal disease: a frequent and neglected clinical problem.},
  author={Domenico Santoro and Ersilia Satta and Salvatore Messina and Giuseppe Costantino and Vincenzo Savica and Guido Bellinghieri},
  journal={Clinical nephrology},
  year={2012},
  volume={79 Suppl 1},
  pages={
          S2-11
        }
}
Pain is a major health problem in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) affecting half of the dialysis patients; most of them experience a moderate to severe degree of pain. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic pain and its consequences are often underestimated. Sources of pain related to the uremic environment are renal bone disease (osteitis fibrosa cystica, amyloidosis, osteomalacia), osteoarthritis, calcific uremic arteriolopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Moreover, comorbid conditions such as… CONTINUE READING

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