Pain experience in hermit crabs?

@article{Elwood2009PainEI,
  title={Pain experience in hermit crabs?},
  author={Robert William Elwood and Mirjam Appel},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={2009},
  volume={77},
  pages={1243-1246}
}

Figures from this paper

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  • R. Elwood
  • Environmental Science
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  • 2022
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Caution is required when considering sentience in animals: a response to the commentary by Briffa (2022) on "Hermit crabs, shells, and sentience" (Elwood 2022).
My recent review examined the complex and intimate relationship between hermit crabs and the empty gastropod shells upon which they depend for survival. Because shells come with costs as well as
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The Evidence for Pain in Fish: The Use of Morphine as an Analgesic
The timing of decisions during shell investigation by the hermit crab, Pagurus bernhardus
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