Pain assessment: current status and challenges.

  title={Pain assessment: current status and challenges.},
  author={Pat Hummel and M van Dijk},
  journal={Seminars in fetal & neonatal medicine},
  volume={11 4},
Neonatal pain assessment has received much attention over the past decade. Behavioural indicators of pain include facial action, body movement and tone, cry, state/sleep, and consolability. Physiological indicators of pain include increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure, as well as decreased heart rate variability and oxygen desaturation. Pain assessment in neonates is difficult in neurologically compromised, chemically paralyzed, and non-responsive infants. Multiple pain… CONTINUE READING

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