Pain, suffering, and anxiety in animals and humans

  title={Pain, suffering, and anxiety in animals and humans},
  author={D. Degrazia and A. Rowan},
  journal={Theoretical Medicine},
We attempt to bring the concepts of pain, suffering, and anxiety into sufficient focus to make them serviceable for empirical investigation. The common-sense view that many animals experience these phenomena is supported by empirical and philosophical arguments. We conclude, first, that pain, suffering, and anxiety are different conceptually and as phenomena, and should not be conflated. Second, suffering can be the result — or perhaps take the form — of a variety of states including pain… Expand
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