Packet classifiers in ternary CAMs can be smaller

Abstract

Serving as the core component in many packet forwarding, differentiating and filtering schemes, packet classification continues to grow its importance in today's IP networks. Currently, most vendors use Ternary CAMs (TCAMs) for packet classification. TCAMs usually use brute-force parallel hardware to simultaneously check for all rules. One of the fundamental problems of TCAMs is that TCAMs suffer from range specifications because rules with range specifications need to be translated into multiple TCAM entries. Hence, the cost of packet classification will increase substantially as the number of TCAM entries grows. As a result, network operators hesitate to configure packet classifiers using range specifications. In this paper, we optimize packet classifier configurations by identifying semantically equivalent rule sets that lead to reduced number of TCAM entries when represented in hardware. In particular, we develop a number of effective techniques, which include: trimming rules, expanding rules, merging rules, and adding rules. Compared with previously proposed techniques which typically require modifications to the packet processor hardware, our scheme does not require any hardware modification, which is highly preferred by ISPs. Moreover, our scheme is complementary to previous techniques in that those techniques can be applied on the rule sets optimized by our scheme. We evaluate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed techniques using extensive experiments based on both real packet classifiers managed by a large tier-1 ISP and synthetic data generated randomly. We observe significant reduction on the number of TCAM entries that are needed to represent the optimized packet classifier configurations.

DOI: 10.1145/1140277.1140313

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@inproceedings{Dong2006PacketCI, title={Packet classifiers in ternary CAMs can be smaller}, author={Qunfeng Dong and Suman Banerjee and Jia Wang and Dheeraj Agrawal and Ashutosh Shukla}, booktitle={SIGMETRICS/Performance}, year={2006} }