Pacific Salmon in Hot Water: Applying Aerobic Scope Models and Biotelemetry to Predict the Success of Spawning Migrations

  title={Pacific Salmon in Hot Water: Applying Aerobic Scope Models and Biotelemetry to Predict the Success of Spawning Migrations},
  author={Anthony P. Farrell and Scott G. Hinch and Steven J. Cooke and David A. Patterson and Glenn T. Crossin and Mike Lapointe and M. T. Mathes},
  journal={Physiological and Biochemical Zoology},
  pages={697 - 708}
Concern over global climate change is widespread, but quantifying relationships between temperature change and animal fitness has been a challenge for scientists. Our approach to this challenge was to study migratory Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), fish whose lifetime fitness hinges on a once‐in‐a‐lifetime river migration to natal spawning grounds. Here, we suggest that their thermal optimum for aerobic scope is adaptive for river migration at the population level. We base this suggestion… 
Modelling the Future Hydroclimatology of the Lower Fraser River and its Impacts on the Spawning Migration Survival of Sockeye Salmon
Short episodic high temperature events can be lethal for migrating adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We downscaled temperatures for the Fraser River, British Columbia to evaluate the impact
Aerobic scope increases throughout an ecologically relevant temperature range in coho salmon
Coho salmon do not conform to existing predictions about the temperature dependence of aerobic scope in Pacific salmon, suggesting that when attempting to understand thermal optima for Pacific salmon and other species across life stages, AS is a useful metric of oxygen transport capacity but other thermally sensitive physiological indices of performance and fitness should be considered in concert.
Thermal sensitivity and flow-mediated migratory delays drive climate risk for coastal sockeye salmon
Climate change is subjecting aquatic species to increasing temperatures and shifting hydrologic conditions. Understanding how these changes affect individual survival can help guide conservation and
Environment, antecedents and climate change: lessons from the study of temperature physiology and river migration of salmonids
  • A. Farrell
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2009
The upper limit for heart rate may emerge as a valuable, but simple predictor of optimal temperature in active animals, opening the possibility of using biotelemetry of heart rate in field situations to explore properly the full interplay of environmental factors on aerobic scope.
High river temperature reduces survival of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) approaching spawning grounds and exacerbates female mortality
Female and male survival differed but only when they experienced warm river temperatures, and it is suspected that females could be immuno- compromised and thus less resistant to pathogens whose rates of development are accelerated by warm temperatures.
Effects of natal water concentration and temperature on the behaviour of up-river migrating sockeye salmon
There were few associations between metabolic stress indices and reproductive hormone levels with this behaviour in either population; however, higher temperatures and elevated natal water concentrations in the Seton River were associated with shorter powerhouse delays and less wandering in late-run migrants.
Effects of river temperature and climate warming on stock‐specific survival of adult migrating Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)
Mean summer water temperatures in the Fraser River (British Columbia, Canada) have increased by ∼1.5 °C since the 1950s. In recent years, record high river temperatures during spawning migrations of
One size does not fit all: variation in thermal eco-physiology among Pacific salmonids
A more nuanced approach to west-coast salmonid conservation will be required to protect the most at-risk and vulnerable populations and incorporate population-specific traits and present and future watershed conditions.


Effects of River Discharge, Temperature, and Future Climates on Energetics and Mortality of Adult Migrating Fraser River Sockeye Salmon
Abstract We evaluated the effects of past and future trends in temperature and discharge in the Fraser River on the migratory performance of the early Stuart population of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus
The timing of adult sockeye salmon migration into fresh water: adaptations by populations to prevailing thermal regimes
The timing of migration varied among populations and was primarily related to temperature regime during migration and the timing of spawning, but when temperatures were moderate, sockeye salmon tended to migrate to the vicinity of the spawning grounds about 1 month prior to spawning, regardless of the length of the freshwater migra...
Temperature‐mediated en route migration mortality and travel rates of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon
Temperature- and condition-related adult mortality in Columbia and Fraser River sockeye salmon populations parallel and suggest increased risk for fish in poor initial condition and probable recent selection against late-timed salmon.
Impact and Adaptation Responses of Okanagan River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to Climate Variation and Change Effects During Freshwater Migration: Stock Restoration and Fisheries Management Implications
We summarized existing knowledge on behavioural and physiological responses of Okanagan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) adults to annual and seasonal variations in aquatic thermal regimes during migration.
Abnormal Migration Timing and High en route Mortality of Sockeye Salmon in the Fraser River, British Columbia
Since 1995, several stocks of Fraser River sockeye salmon have begun upriver spawning migrations significantly earlier than previously observed, with high levels of en route and pre-spawning mortality, occasionally exceeding 90%.
Physiology of individual late-run Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) sampled in the ocean correlates with fate during spawning migration
Differences in physi- ological and energetic status may be associated with high en route mortality in late-run sockeye salmon.
Exposure to high temperature influences the behaviour, physiology, and survival of sockeye salmon during spawning migration
Since 1996, some populations of Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerkaWalbaum in Artedi, 1792) have begun spawning migrations weeks earlier than normal, and most perish en route as a result.
Behaviour and physiology of sockeye salmon homing through coastal waters to a natal river
From point of release to the river mouth, males migrated faster than females, but once in river migration rates did not differ between sexes, and a correlation was discovered between levels of circulating testosterone and river entry timing among all females.
Energetic Responses of Salmon to Temperature. A Study of Some Thermal Relations in the Physiology and Freshwater Ecology of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerkd)
It is concluded that a mechanism of behavioral thermoregulation has evolved which favorably balances daily metabolic expenditures in order to conserve energy when food is limited.
Behavioral Thermoregulation and Slowed Migration by Adult Fall Chinook Salmon in Response to High Columbia River Water Temperatures
Abstract The relationships between lower Columbia River water temperatures and migration rates, temporary tributary use, and run timing of adult fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were