Pacemaker activity in the upper urinary tract.

@article{Weiss2006PacemakerAI,
  title={Pacemaker activity in the upper urinary tract.},
  author={Robert M. Weiss and Frank J. Tamarkin and Marcia Anne Wheeler},
  journal={Journal of smooth muscle research = Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai kikanshi},
  year={2006},
  volume={42 4},
  pages={103-15}
}
Ureteral peristaltic activity begins with the origin of electrical activity at pacemaker sites. These sites are located in the proximal portion of the urinary collecting system. The 'atypical' smooth muscle cells at these sites fire 'pacemaker' potentials at a frequency higher than the 'driven' action potentials recorded from typical smooth muscle cells. In contrast to typical smooth muscle cells, these atypical pacemaker cells have less than 40% of their cellular area occupied by contractile… CONTINUE READING

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